The club was founded in 1928 as a works team for the Peugeot motor car factory in the village of Sochaux. The following year, Sochaux's management sought to attract talented players from around Europe to become France's first professional soccer club.
Results soon followed as Sochaux captured the 1935 and 1938 league championships.
In the post-war era, the FCSM saw its stature in French soccer steadily diminish from a league heavyweight to a middle-of-the-table performer relying more on its excellent youth development program than on the substantial budgets of yore. Although rarely relegated to the second division, Sochaux would not hoist a major trophy until 2004's Coupe de la Ligue.
The current renaissance of les lionceaux ("the lion cubs") has seen the club finish in the top half of the Ligue 1 table three years running and compete in the UEFA Cup, as well as acquire French Cup in 2007. It is recognized as one of the very best sources of young talent in France, with players like Benoît Pedretti and Pierre-Alain Frau finding their way to top clubs and the French national team.