Repeated urination into bedding or clothing, usually at night, in a normal child old enough to have completed toilet training. Enuresis may be voluntary or involuntary. It may run in families. Stressful life events, poor toilet training, and chronic social disadvantage increase its likelihood. It usually resolves with time. Treatment includes family education, reassurance, and behaviour therapy. An alarm to wake the child when urination begins has proved highly effective but takes time to achieve complete success. Drug treatment, though not the treatment of choice, is sometimes effective.
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