The Engerth locomotive
was a type of early articulated steam locomotive
designed by Wilhelm Frieherr von Engerth
for use on the Semmering Railway
Wilhelm von Engerth was born in Pless
, Upper Silesia
(Now Pszczyna, Poland
) on 26 May 1814
, the brother of the artist Edouard von Engerth
. Initially, he studied architecture, but in 1834 he took up mechanical engineering as a profession. By the late 1850s he was the General Manager of the Imperial Austrian State Railways
. Von Engerth was created a Baron
) in 1875, and he died on 4 September 1884
Von Engerth first patented his design for an articulated locomotive
on 11 December 1852
The Semmering Railway
, opened on 17 July 1854
, was one of the first true mountain railways
, traversing a section of the Austrian Alps
. It was characterized by steep gradients and sharp curves. To work this railway a new design of locomotive was developed.
A competition was held to decide which locomotives would be bought for operation on the Semmering Railway. One stretch of the line had gradients of 1 in 40 (2.5%) and curves with a minimum radius of and a maximum radius of . A speed of was required to be maintained and a maximum axle loading of 14 tonnes, with a boiler pressure not exceeding 8.5 kgf/cm² (830 kPa). There were four entrants, Bavaria, built by Maffei; Weiner-Neustadt built by Weiner-Neustadt; Seraing built by Société John Cockerill in Belgium and Vindobona built by the Glognitz Bahn in Vienna. All four locomotives fulfilled the conditions of the trial, but did not prove reliable in practice. The Semmering Trials lead to a number of developments in locomotive design:- Fairlie's Patent of 1863, The Meyer locomotive and the Mallet locomotive.
The Engerth design articulated the tender with the main locomotive frame, allowing some of the weight of the fuel and water to be carried on the driving wheels to improve adhesion. Because the tender was articulated, rather than directly attached to the frame, the locomotive could traverse relatively sharp curves, while still enjoying the advantage of the additional adhesive weight gain. The original design also included an indirect drive from the main driving wheels to the wheels under the tender. This arrangement proved too complex to maintain and was dropped from the design.
Sixteen locomotives were supplied to the Semmering Railway between November 1853 and May 1854. They proved capable of uphill on gradients of 1 in 40 (2.5%). An Engerth locomotive was featured on an Austrian stamp commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Semmering Railway in 2004. The Engerth locomotive also appeared on a 25 Euro coin issued by Austria in 2004.
Other Engerth locomotives
The design proved popular, especially for use in Alpine mountain railways. Engerth locomotives were found with wheel arrangements of 0-4-4T
. As well as in Austria, they were used in Bosnia and Herzegovina
built ten locomotive for the Ponferrada
railway (PV) in Spain. Some narrow gauge 2-6-0T locomotives were built for the Ferrocaril de Elgoibar
a San Sebastián
. These powerful locomotives were capable of and could traverse curves of radius. Two of these locomotives were later sold to the PV. Another four locomotives built by MACOSA in Spain were also bought by the PV. Three of the PV locomotives were in service until 1989. Thirteen Engerth locomotives were supplied to the Oravita
- Bazias railway in Romania in 1854.
A variation of the Engerth system was devised by Pius Fink. This entailed having the rear wheels also driven by coupling rods from a crankshaft, thus making the locomotive an 0-6-4-0T
. One locomotive was built by the Staats Eisenbahn Geschellschaft, Vienna in 1861 carried No. 500 and was named Steyefdorf
. It was used on the Reschtiza - Orawicza line. Three more were built, the last in 1867. These included No. 501 Krassova
and No. 502 Gerliste
. One of these four locomotives survived until 1891, becoming Hungarian State Railways
One example of the Engerth type is preserved at the the Swiss Transport Museum
. This locomotive, No.28 Genf
an 0-4-6T built by Maschinenfabrik Esslingen
in 1858 to work the Schweizensche Centraalbahn (Swiss Central Railway). She retired from active service in 1899 and was used as a static boiler at Olten
. She is the oldest locomotive in Switzerland.
Bushtehradska Railway locomotive 103 Kladno is preserved in the National Technical Museum in Prague, Czech Republic.
Locomotive Mh6, an 0-8-4T built in 1908, is preserved on the Mariazellerbahn in Austria.
The Waldviertler Schmalspurbahnen in Austria has an Engerth locomotive, No.399.03, an ex-ÖBB locomotive.
Chemin de Fer du Midi 0-6-4T locomotive no.312 L'Adour is preserved at the Musée Français du Chemin de Fer, Mulhouse, France.
The Beer Heights Light Railway
, an Engerth type locomotive on its gauge line.
- Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Volume 57 (1985-86), Engerth and similar locomotives. D.R. Carling
- Photo and description of Engerth locomotive .
- Photo of an Engerth locomotive.
- Review of CD with Javan Engerth locomotives mentioned.