Born in Fauquier County, Virginia, Florence attended the public schools and studied agricultural. He later moved to Ohio and settled in Circleville, Pickaway County. He served as member of the Ohio House of Representatives in 1829, 1830, 1834, and 1840, and served in the State senate in 1835.
Florence was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-eighth Congress (March 4, 1843-March 3, 1845). In 1850, he served as member of the State constitutional convention. Thereafter he resumed agricultural pursuits. Florence died in Muhlenberg Township, Ohio, November 21, 1880. He was interred in Forest Cemetery, in Circleville.