is a literary genre
consisting of works of literature
that originate within digital
N. Katherine Hayles
discusses the topic in the online article Electronic Literature: What Is It
She argues in her 2008 text Electronic Literature
that, "electronic literature, generally considered to exclude print literature that has been digitized, is by contrast 'digital born,' and (usually) meant to be read on a computer." Hayles also cites the definition offered by the Electronic Literature Organization
(ELO) as, "work with an important literary aspect that takes advantage of the capabilities and contexts provided by the stand-alone or networked computer."
On its official website, the ELO offers this additional definition of electronic literature as consisting of works which are:
- Hypertext fiction and poetry, on and off the Web
- Kinetic poetry presented in Flash and using other platforms
- Computer art installations which ask viewers to read them or otherwise have literary aspects
- Conversational characters, also known as chatterbots
- Interactive fiction
- Novels that take the form of emails, SMS messages, or blogs
- Poems and stories that are generated by computers, either interactively or based on parameters given at the beginning
- Collaborative writing projects that allow readers to contribute to the text of a work
- Literary performances online that develop new ways of writing.
Notable people and works
There are a number of notable authors, critics, and works associated with electronic literature.
- Bolter, Jay David. Writing Space: Computers, Hypertext, and the Remediation of Print, Second Edition. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
- ---. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.
- Hansen, Mark B. N. Bodies in Code: Interfaces With Digital Media. Routledge, 2006.
- ---. New Philosophy For New Media. Cambridge:MIT Press, 2004.
- Hayles, N. Katherine. Electronic Literature: New Horizons for the Literary. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2008.
- ---. My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
- ---. Writing Machines. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.
- Landow, George.Hypertext 3.0 : Critical Theory and New Media in an Era of Globalization (Parallax: Re-visions of Culture and Society), 2005
- ---.Hypertext 2.0 : The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology (Parallax: Re-visions of Culture and Society), 1997
- ---.Hypertext : The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology (Parallax: Re-visions of Culture and Society), 1991
- ---.Hyper/Text/Theory, 1994
- Manovich, Lev.The Language of New Media, MIT Press, Cambridge Mass, USA, 2001.
- Moulthrop, Stuart. You Say You Want a Revolution: Hypertext and the Laws of Media Postmodern Culture, v.1 n.3 (May, 1991).