The Duchy of Livonia (Hertigdömet Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from the 1620s until 1721. Swedish Livonia, which constituted the southern part of Estonia and northern part of Latvia (Vidzeme region), represented the conquest of the major part of what was the Polish-Lithuanian domain of Livonia and was completed by 1629. Parts of Livonia and the city of Riga was under Swedish control as early as 1621, and the situation was formalized in Truce of Altmark 1629, but the whole territory was not ceded until the Treaty of Oliva in 1660. The minority part of the Wenden Voivodeship retained by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was renamed the Inflanty Voivodeship ("Livonian principality"), which today corresponds to the Latgale region of Latvia. Aside from Stockholm, Riga was the largest city in the Swedish Empire at the time.
Temporary cavalry regiments: