Bananas are the chief commercial crop and export. Citrus, coconuts, and coconut oil are also exported, and mangoes and root crops are raised. Industry is generally limited to food processing and the manufacture of soap and other coconut-based products. Tourism is a growing industry, but Dominica remains one of the poorer Caribbean nations. The main trading partners are Great Britain, the United States, and China.
Dominica is a parliamentary democracy governed under the constitution of 1978. The head of state is the president, who is elected by the House Assembly and serves a five-year term. The head of government is the prime minister. The members of the thirty-seat unicameral legislature, the House of Assembly serve five-year terms; twenty-one are popularly elected and nine are appointed. Administratively, Dominica is divided into ten parishes.
The island was sighted by Columbus in 1493. English and French attempts at settlement were thwarted by the Caribs, who had taken it earlier from the Arawaks. An Anglo-French treaty of 1748 left Dominica in Carib hands, but both powers continued to covet it. In the 18th cent. Africans were brought in as slaves to work plantations. The island definitively passed to the British in 1815. Hostilities between the British and the Caribs led to the slaughter of large numbers of Caribs. Today, however, there are around 3,000 Caribs who occupy a reservation on the eastern side of the island.
Dominica has been a fully independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations since 1978. In 1981 there were two failed coup attempts. In 1980, Eugenia Charles and the Dominica Freedom party came to power; Charles, who survived two coup attempts in 1981, remained prime minister until she retired in 1995. Edison James, founder of the opposition United Workers' party (DUWP), succeeded her after a win at the polls. He remained prime minister until early 2000, when Rosie Douglas led the Labor party (LPD) to a narrow victory over James and the DUWP. Douglas died in 2000 and was succeeded by Pierre Charles, who died in 2003. Roosevelt Skerrit succeeded Charles as prime minister. Labor was returned to power, again by a narrow margin, in 2005, but won by a landslide in 2009.
The United Workers' Party is a centrist political party in Dominica. The party was founded in 1988 by Edison James, Julius Timothy, Norris Prevost, Dennis Labassier and others. In the 1990 elections the UWP won 6 of the 21 seats and became the official opposition. In 1995 the UWP won 11 seats at the general elections forming the first UWP government headed by Edison James as prime minister. At the 31 January 2000 elections, the party won 43.3 % of popular votes and 9 out of 21 elected members of parliament. Though it captured the most popular votes, it got fewer seats than the Dominica Labour Party. The party was therefore once again in opposition. James continued to lead the party, which set up a tough campaign for the May 5 2005 elections, but lost 1 seat. After the election, this time receiving less votes than the Dominica Labour Party, the party held 8 seats in Parliament and remained in opposition.
In December 2005 James stood down as political leader and was replaced by Attorney Earl Williams, Minister of Communications and Works in the last UWP administration. Williams defeated founding member and then Deputy Leader Julius Timothy who also sought the leadership of the party. As a result Timothy, the Minister of Finance under the UWP government, left the party and crossed the floor to join the Dominica Labour Party government. This resulted in the UWP being reduced to seven seats in Parliament.