Poaching occurs in the park, and in 1968 there was a considerable reduction of large mammal populations by the 'Service de l'Elevage'.
In 1989, the International Union for Conservation of Nature recommended that "The legal status of Deux Balés National Park should be reviewed, in light of agricultural and mining activities which conflict with the integrity of its elephant populations".
The Park has been called "an area of about of bushland and aging baobab trees". The vegetation comprises Sudano-Zambezian savanna with a carpet of grasses, and trees such as Anogeissus leiocarpus, Isoberlinia doka and Terminalia laxiflora. There is gallery forest on the riverbanks.
Mammals include hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius, buffalo Syncerus caffer, elephant Loxodonta africana, crocodile Crocodylus sp. and antelopes, although the diversity of fauna has been reported as being reduced.
In Antelopes: Global Survey And Regional Action Plans (1990), Rod East stated the view that the long-term survival of Burkina Faso's antelope populations would depend on developing rational wildlife utilization schemes in areas such as Deux Balés, recognizing the importance of bushmeat, and that giving legal protection to the antelope there would achieve little without other improvements in management.
The forests lying along some one hundred kilometres of the banks of the Black Volta River are protected within the Deux Balés.