The Darod (Darood or Daarood, بني داوود) is a Somali clan. The father of this clan is named Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti, but is more commonly known as Darod. In the Somali language, the word Daarood means "an enclosed compound," a conflation of the two words daar (compound) and ood (place enclosed by wall, trees, woods, fence, etc).
The Darod population in Somalia lives principally in the north, with a presence in the Mogadishu area as well as southwestern Somalia. Outside of Somalia proper, there are various Darod sub-clans in the Somali Region and the North Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), as well as Yemen.
There are a few theries as to Darod's origin. Some claim him to be an Ethiopian slave that escaped from the Hijaz and ran to Somalia, while others say Darod was just a Somalian and not an Arab. Others even say that Darod was descedend from Yemeni streetsweepers known as Jabarti; majority of Islamic historians and modern historians however find no connection to Darod and these Yemenese streetsweepers, they could however been descended from Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Al Aqeeli's other children. Moreover, the most authentic and most widely held belief is that Darod was born in the metropolitan Islamic city known as Jabarta to a Banu Hashim
The 9th century Islamic writer, Al- Masudi wrote in his Aquiline book (the descendants of the prophet Mohammed's young cousin Aqeel Ibn Abu Talib) that several Quraish sub-clans moved to to the city of Jabarta and the Zeila region around the ninth century A.D. Some key sub-clans include Banu Shams, Banu Abd Manaf and Banu Hashim. From the Banu Hashim, many Aquiline settlers lived in Jabarta such as Ahmed Ibn Husein Ibn Ali Al-Jabarti, Ahmed Ibn Omar Al-Zayli and most importantly he mentions the sufi Qadiriyah sheik Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Abdisamad Al-Aqeeyli Al-Zayli who is considered a Sufi saint in Yemen, the father of Darod(Abdirahman) the man most modern Darood claim have descended from. This sufi sheikh also had other sons -who all carry the surname "Jabarti"- where their tribes can be found in Southern Yemen, Eriteria, and parts of Saudi Arabia.
The majority of Darod clan members claim to be descendants of Muhammad ibn Aqil, son of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib. Aqeel ibn Abi Talib was the second of four sons of Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who was the uncle and protector of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Abu Talib during those early days was head of the Banu Hashim. The Darod have strong tribal relationships with the other Hashemites.
According to early Islamic books and Somali tradition, Muhammad ibn Aqil's descendant Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti, a son of the Sufi sheikh of the Qadiriyyah Order, was born in Jabarta, northeastern Somalia in either the 9th or 10th centuries AD, where he took the daughter of the Dir chief as his wife. Darod was also good friends with Sheikh Isaaq bin Ahmed al-Hashimi, another Banu Hashim who came to Somalia around the same time and is also the father of another clan in Somalia known as Reer Isaaq.
The Darod were supporters of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi during his 16th century conquest of Ethiopia, especially the Harti and Marehan sub-clans, who fought at the Battle of Shimbra Kure.
Darod is the son of the famous Sufi Sheikh, Ismail bin Ibrahim Al-Jabarti, who was born in Yemen but raised in Jabarti. He is considered by almost all Darod Somalis to be desceneded from the Bani Hashim.
His lineage is: Abdirahmaan Bin Ismaa'iil Bin Ibraahim Bin Abdirahmaan Bin Muhammed Bin Abdi Samad Bin Hanbal Bin Mahdi Bin Ahmed Bin Abdallah Bin Muhammed Bin Aqil Bin Abu-Talib Bin Abdul-Mutalib Bin Hashim.
Sons of Daarood
Darod had five sons, and they are:
- Muhammad ibn AbdiRahman, known by his Somali nickname '"Kablalax
- Ahmed ibn AbdiRahman= Sade Daarood
- Hussien ibn AbdiRahman= Tanade Daarood
- Yuosuf ibn AbdiRahman= Awrtable Daarood
- Eissa ibn AbdiRahman= Ciise Daarood
Some sources, including the Canadian
Report of the Somalia Commission of Inquiry, indicate that the Darod is the largest Somali clan.
and Human Rights Watch
, however, indicate that Hawiye
is the largest Somali clan. The CIA indicates that the Darod make up 40% of the Somalis in Ethiopia and Kenya.
Partial sub-clan summary
- Issak Hassan,
- Abayoonis Hassan,
- Omer Hassan
- Ika Hume Geri
- Aadan Siciid
- Adan Yaqub
- Ahmed Dhegawayn
- Bah Habar Osmaan
- Bah Habar Hasan
- Bah Idoor
- Bah Ogayslabe
- Bah Yabare
- Bihina Guuleed
- Aamir Of Garad Mohamoud
- Garad Liban (Tuure)
- Ahmed Omar
- Jibrell Saiid
- Raage Ali
- Reer Omar
- Reer Faatax
- Reer Garaad
- Reer Mohamed
- Reer Saalah
- Reer Haaji
- Reer Yaasuf of Mohamud Omar[Yasif Omar]
- Reer Yusuf of Garad Mohamoud
- Husein Iise
Notable Darod people
- Mohammed Sheikh Adden, Marehan, Somali intellectual, former head of Somali Technological Development, Minister of Information, Minister of Education, Marehan, Head of the Ideology Bureau SRRC
- Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, Majeerteen, President of Somalia's transitional government since 2004
- Abdulrahman Jama Barre, Marehan, Somali Foreign Minister and close relative of Siad Barre
- Siad Barre, Marehan, third President of Somalia, 1969–1991
- Fatimo Isaak Bihi, Marehan, First Somali female ambassador, Ambassador to Geneva, Director of the African Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Abdi Bile, Dhulbahante, winner of the 1,500 metres at the "1987 World Championships in Athletics"
- Faarax Maxamed Jaamac Cawl, Warsangeli, writer
- Hassan Abshir Farah, Majeerteen, former Mogadishu mayor, Somali ambassador to Japan and later to Germany, interior minister of Puntland, prime minister of Transitional Federal Government from Arta, and current TFG minister of fishing and marine resources
- Nuruddin Farah, Ogaden, prominent writer and winner of the 1998 Neustadt International Prize for Literature
- Ali Khalif Galaid, Dhulbahante, former TNG Prime Minister of Somalia
- Ali Matan Hashi, Marehan, first Somali pilot, commander of Somali Airforce 1959-1978, Minister of Justice, Minister of Health, Somali Nationalist.
- Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan), Ogaden, the Sayyid; called the Mad Mullah by the British
- Mohamud Muse Hersi, Majeerteen, President of Puntland
- Mohamed Abdi Hashi, Dulbahante, Former President of Puntland, Former Vice-president of Puntland, Former Chairman of USP (United Somali Party) Pan-Somali party. Known for his surpassing integrity, nationalism and fairness.
- Aden Ibrahim Aw Hirsi, Marehan, Author, Islamic Jurisprudence/Political Science scholar, governor of Gedo region 2007-
- Mohamud Hashi Abdi Hoosh, Marehan, Jubba Regional Army Command 1980-1991
- Abdirizak Haji Hussein, Majeerteen, Prime Minister of Somalia.
- Ahmed Farah Ali 'Idaja', Marehan, one of the first Somali language writers and 'father' of the Somali written folklore
- Warsame Indhoole, Marehan, Director of the Somali Developmental Crash Program, oversaw the successful Somali literacy campaign
- Hirsi Magan Isse, Majeerteen, scholar and one of the leaders of the Somalian revolution
- Osman Yuusuf Keenadiid, Majeerteen, inventor of the Osmanya writing script
- Yaasiin Cismaan Keenadiid, Majeerteen, author of the Somali Dictionary and founding member of the Somali Youth League
- Mohammed Awale Liban, Majeerteen, designed the flag of Somalia
- Mire Hagi Farah Mohamed, Majeerteen, Somali Finance Minister 2004-2006, and former Mayor Of Kismayo port City
- Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan, Majeerteen, defence minister beginning of 1990s
- Mohammed Jibril Muse, Majeerteen, former Chief of Somali Secret Service, General and later on Police chief of state of Puntland
- Said Sheikh Samatar, Leelkase, professor at Rutgers University
- Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, Majeerteen, second President of Somalia, 1967–1969
- Mohamoud Ali Shire, Warsangeli, Sultan of former "British Somaliland" (1897–1960)
- Hussein Shuqul, Marehan, Head of "Jaalle Siyaad" National Military College
- Ahmed Warsame, Marehan, Head of the Somali Military
- Xasan Xayle, Warsangeli, Somali poet from Las Khorey
- Farah Maalim, Deputy Speaker, Kenyan Parliament, Ogaden Aulyahan
- Mohamed Yussuf Haji, Kenyan Defense Minister, Ogaden Abdalla
Darod resting Place
- Hunt, John A. (1951). " Chapter IX: Tribes and Their Stock". A General Survey of the Somaliland Protectorate 1944–1950. London: Crown Agent for the Colonies. Accessed on October 7 2005 (from Civic Webs Virtual Library archive).
- The Somali Ethnic Group and Clan System. Civic Webs Virtual Library, from: Reunification of the Somali People by Jack L. Davies, Band 160 IEE Working Papers, Institute of Development Research and Development, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany 1996, ISBN 3-927276-46-4, ISSN 0934-6058. Retrieved on January 22., 2006.