Cosworth

Cosworth

Cosworth is an automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in engines for automobile racing (motorsport). It supplies a wide range of motorsport series, including the World Rally Championship and, until the end of 2006, Formula One. Cosworth is based in Northampton, England, with a North American facility in Torrance, California.

Starting from 1963, Cosworth ran a long and distinguished career in Formula 1. In 2006, two Formula 1 teams were supplied with Cosworth engines: the Williams team using Cosworth V8 engines, transmissions and associated electronics, and the Scuderia Toro Rosso team using rev-limited Cosworth V10s based on 2005 spec engines. The end of the 2006 F1 season marked the end of Cosworth's remarkable 43 year association with the series, as no team opted to use Cosworth for 2007. Cosworth left the sport as the second most successful engine manufacturer ever to race in F1, only behind Ferrari in grand prix victories.

Initially Cosworth was an independent company, then part of UEI and subsequently Vickers. Despite its long association with Ford, it was a subsidiary of Ford for only a very short time. The company was split into Technology and Racing divisions; the Racing division that retains the Cosworth name is now owned by Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven. The Technology division was briefly owned by Volkswagen and is now part of Mahle GmbH.

Since leaving F1, Cosworth has committed itself to its Ford inline-4 Duratec program. It has also started to supply complete high performance Subaru EJ25 engines and components for Subaru Impreza, as well as components for Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution and Nissan vehicles with the VQ35 engine.

Corporate history

The original company was founded as a British racing engine maker in 1958 by Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth (1933-2005 ) (COStin and duckWORTH). Despite being an independent company, Cosworth was supported by Ford for many years, and most of the Cosworth engines were branded Ford.

The company has been through a number of changes of ownership. After Keith Duckworth decided he didn't want to be involved with the day-to-day business of running a growing company, he sold out to United Engineering Industries (UEI) in 1980, retaining his life presidency and day-to-day technical involvement with Cosworth, and becoming a UEI board director; UEI was a group of small to medium-sized technology companies which was taken over by Carlton Communications in 1988 - Carlton was primarily interested in some of the audio-visual companies in the UEI portfolio and Cosworth was a poor fit with these; a new buyer for the company in the engineering/automotive sector was sought and the traditional engineering company Vickers plc bought Cosworth in 1990.

In 1998 Vickers sold the company to Volkswagen Group, who remodelled Cosworth into two separate companies, Cosworth Racing and Cosworth Technology. Volkswagen then signed a deal with Ford, selling them the racing division which had long made racing engines for Ford. Cosworth Technology (also known as CT) offers powertrain development consultancy, and its patented aluminium casting process is used by several car makers, including Audi and Aston Martin. Volkswagen Group sold Cosworth Technology to the Mahle GmbH in December 2004.

In September 2004, Ford announced that it was selling Cosworth Racing, along with its Jaguar Formula One team. On 15 November 2004, the sale of Cosworth was completed, to Champ Car World Series owners Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven, who renamed Cosworth Racing to Cosworth.

Engines

Association with Ford

Cosworth has had a long relationship with Ford, which began when Cosworth first started manufacturing racing engines in 1959. These were modified versions of the Ford Kent engine for Formula Junior. Cosworth began its associating with Lotus Cars by boring the Kent out to for the Lotus 7. and units were developed in 1963 for use in Formula B and sports car racing, as well as for powering the Lotus Cortina. The final evolution of the Cosworth-Kent, in 1965, was the MAE, when new rules were introduced in Formula 3 allowing engines. The domination of this engine was absolute as long as these regulations lasted. As Cosworth had some difficulty facing the demand, the MAE was mainly sold as a kit.

A year before the introduction of the MAE the SCA was introduced, a engine based on a Ford Cortina 116E block that raced in Formula 2, and featured the first totally Cosworth-designed head.

The FVA series

The Cortina engine was also the basis for the FVA, an F2 engine introduced in 1966, and developed under the same contract as the DFV, for the new 1.6 L engine rules. This engine featured 16 valves operated by twin overhead cams driven by a train of 9 gears. The metering unit for the Lucas mechanical fuel injection was rotated by gear and belt from the inlet cam, while the exhaust cam drove an alternator on the rear of the head. It produced a minimum of at 9000 rpm. This engine dominated the category until 1971, and was also used in sports car racing in 1.8 L form as the FVC. The FVA was notable for being part of the same Ford contract that gave rise to the DFV; the cylinder head on the FVA pioneered many of Duckworth's ideas that would be used on the V8 engine.

A larger engine was designed for endurance racing in the mid 1970s, the FVC that displaced . The FVC produced only , down from the that other twin-cam four cylinders such as the Hart 420S produced but was more reliable. One was campaigned in the USA's CanAm series in 1978 in the Osprey SR-1, built and driven by Dan Hartill.

The DFV (Double Four Valve)

In 1966, Colin Chapman (Lotus Cars founder and principal of Team Lotus) persuaded Ford to bankroll Keith Duckworth's design for a new lightweight Formula 1 engine. Cosworth received the order along with the £100,000 that Ford felt it adequate to spend on such an objective. The contract stipulated that a four-cylinder Ford-based F2 engine would be developed as proof of concept (see the FVA above) and that a pure Cosworth V8 would be built based on this. The DFV design used a similar cylinder head to the one Duckworth had prototyped on the four-cylinder FVA units on a custom Cosworth block and crankcase, forming a single 90° V8 engine, thus creating a legend in its own right, the DFV - literally meaning "Double Four Valve". This engine, and its derivatives were used for a quarter of a century, and it was the most successful in the history of Formula 1 / Grand Prix motor racing. Winning 167 races in a career lasting over 20 years, it was the product that put Cosworth Engineering on the map. Although originally designed for Formula One, the engine has been modified to be used in a range of categories.

The DFV won on its first outing, at the 1967 Dutch Grand Prix in the hands of Jim Clark, fitted to a Lotus 49, and from 1968 was available for purchase to any F1 team that wished it. During the 1970s, it was not uncommon for almost the entire field (with the notable exception of Ferrari) to be using one of these engines - this at a time when independent wealthy individuals could buy exactly the same engine off the shelf that was also being used by McLaren et al. Most teams just built a tub around a Cosworth DFV and a Hewland gearbox. It won a record-holding 155 World Championship races, the last being Detroit in 1983, powering a Tyrrell driven by Michele Alboreto.

Although the DFV (bore: 3.373", stroke: 2.555", displacement: ) with at 9,000 rpm did not produce as much power as some of its rival 12-cylinder engines, it was lighter, resulting in a better power to weight ratio. In addition to being lighter, it was also made a structural part of the car itself, by placing load bearing arms to stress the block. These design aspects appealed tremendously to the genius of Colin Chapman who utilised them to the fullest extent.

The DFY, introduced in 1982 was a further evolution of the DFV for Formula One, with a shorter stroke and a DFL bore (bore: 3.543", stroke: 2.316", displacement ) with at 11,000 rpm, thereby producing more power, but still unable to fight against the turbocharged cars of the day. It was the advent of turbocharged engines in Formula 1 which sounded the death knell for the venerable DFV, and in 1986 Cosworth returned to the lower formulae preparing the DFV for the newly-created Formula 3000, with the installation of a compulsory 9,000 rpm rev limiter, which scaled power back from 500 to ; the DFV remained in this class until 1992. The final F3000 engines gave , almost equalling the 1983 DFV which gave at 11,200 rpm.

In Formula 1, a new DFV-based design was introduced for the new normally-aspirated rules in 1987. The DFZ was produced as an interim model, but in 1988 Cosworth created the DFV's final evolution, the DFR, which soldiered on in F1 with smaller teams until 1991, scoring its last points - including a pair of second places by Jean Alesi - with Tyrrell in 1990.

The DFV has recently been given a new lease of life thanks to the interest in Classic F1 racing, which was given a World Championship status by the FIA in 2004.

DFV variants

Throughout the years, the DFV spawned a number of derivations. In 1968, Cosworth created the DFV's first derivation, a version for the Tasman Series, the DFW. DFV to DFW conversion simply involved substitution of a short-stroke crank and longer conrods.

One of the most successful and longest-lived projects of Cosworth has been its CART / Champ Car engine program. In 1975, Cosworth developed the DFX, by destroking the engine to and adding a turbocharger, the DFX became the standard engine to run in IndyCar racing, ending the reign of the Offenhauser, and maintaining that position until the late 1980s. Ford backed Cosworth with creating a new interim design for IndyCar racing in the late 80s, the DFS, which merged DFR technology into the ageing DFX design, but it was eventually rendered obsolete by advancing technology.

While designed as an F1 engine, the DFV was also used as in endurance racing, although its flat-plane design led to destructive vibrations putting stress on devices surrounding the engine, especially the exhaust system. The first sports car to use a DFV, the Ford P68, failed to finish a single race because of repeated mechanical and electrical failures. Despite this handicap the DFV won the 24 hours of Le Mans twice in its original 3.0 L form for Mirage and Rondeau (although the Mirage win in 1975 was with a significantly de-tuned unit). A special endurance version, the DFL, was then developed in two versions: one with and the other with . Whilst the former version soon became known for its reliability, the latter version was a step too far and is largely remembered as a failure.

The GA V6

A variant of the Ford Essex V6 engine was developed for the Ford Capris raced in Group 2 the early 1970s. This had a capacity of , and was highly competitive with the BMW straight-sixes. The GA was also used in the later years of Formula 5000 in Europe.

The BDA series

Cosworth increased its association with Ford in 1969, by developing a DOHC 16-valve inline four cylinder engine for road use in the Ford Escort. Working from the Kent block, Cosworth created a for homologation purposes. The camshafts were driven by a toothed belt, hence the name BDA, literally meaning "Belt Drive, A type". Running in Group 2 and Group 4 on either rallying or touring car racing, this engine could be enlarged to a maximum of . The nominal homologation at capacity (in fact the engine displaced slightly less than 1600 cc) meant that BDA-engined cars competed in what was usually the top class (1600 cc and up) so were eligible for absolute victories rather than class wins.

In 1970, the BDC evolution received fuel injection for the first time. Two years later, the BDA series was being used in Formula 2, first at around , until reaching a maximum of in 1973, as the developed BDG form of the engine, which also received an aluminium block.

The block could also be shortened, starting with the Formula Atlantic engine in 1970, followed by the and variants for SCCA club racing and sports car racing.

In the 1980s, the engine saw its final incarnations, the BDR, used in the road-going version of the Caterham, and the 1.8 L BDT, which powered the never raced Escort RS1700T, and the more competitive Ford RS200, which was created for Group B rallying. A evolution model was developed by Brian Hart just as Group B was cancelled by the FIA. The BDT-E turbocharged versions gave over in Group B rallycross configuration.

In 1970, Ford asked Weslake and Co of Rye to build the BDA Engine for them, and by the end of 1970 the production line had been installed at Rye and production was under way.

The Hart 420R owes much to the BDA series, being essentially an aluminium-block derivative using similar heads.

The YB series

The YB series of engines are based on the older Pinto engine block, and were introduced in the road-going Ford Sierra Cosworth in 1986 with . It was the first road going turbocharged engine that developed more than per litre, with 5,000 units built for homologation purposes in Group A, both for rallies and touring cars. Racing versions could develop about . A limited edition evolution model was introduced in 1987, the RS500, with power now exceeding in full racing trim. The RS500 came to dominate touring car racing in its heyday. Today there are many road going YB engines developing over , and there are several rallycross Sierra Cosworths utilising YB engines tuned to over . The Rev Hard drag racing team use a YB engine in their Escort Cosworth car that develops whilst still retaining the original 2 litre capacity.

Further evolutions of the YB included a reduced-emissions road version, as well as the block used in the Escort RS Cosworth (which used the Sierra floorpan). The engine stopped being used on new cars in 1997, with the Focus WRC and road-going Focus RS relying on Zetec designs.

Other Formula One engines

Cosworth experimented with turbocharged BD derivatives before settling on an all-new turbocharged V6 engine to be badged as the Ford TEC (internally it was known as the GB-series). This had a long development history but raced only briefly, in 1986, with the Carl Haas Beatrice-Lola team and in 1987 with the Benetton Formula team.

The final DFV/DFZ/DFR replacement, the HB V8 was introduced with the Benetton team midway through 1989, winning the Japanese Grand Prix that year. This exploited a narrower vee-angle than the DFV. As the works team, Benetton maintained exclusivity with this model through the rest of 1989 and 1990. 1991 saw the introduction of customer units, two specifications behind their works equivalents. In 1991, these were supplied to the fledgling Jordan outfit, and for 1992, Lotus. 1993 saw the customer deal extended to McLaren, who won 5 Grands Prix with Ayrton Senna that year. It was not until the introduction of the new Cosworth unit, badged as a Ford Zetec-R, that Michael Schumacher won the Drivers World Championship with Benetton, in 1994. This was the last Ford powered F1 title.

A Jaguar-badged version of the HB was briefly used in sports car racing, fitted to the extremely successful Jaguar XJR-14.

Cosworth also developed a Ford-badged 72°F1 V10 engine for the Sauber Formula 1 team. (An unrelated V10 designated WDA was also built and tested in a Volvo S80, but this did not see production).

Cosworth has subsequently made several V10 engines for a number of Formula One teams. The Stewart Grand Prix team effectively became the Ford works team, and used Cosworth CR-1 engines from its first season in 1997. Over the next few years Ford had increased its involvement with the Stewart team, and finally bought the team, renaming it Jaguar Racing for 2000. Jaguar pulled out of F1 at the end of 2004, but the team (renamed Red Bull Racing) continued to use Cosworth V10 engines until switching to a Ferrari V8 for 2006. Minardi also used rebadged Cosworth engines until 2005.

Williams used Cosworth V8 engines for the 2006 season, and began testing the new CA2006 2.4 L V8 in November 2005. In the same year Scuderia Toro Rosso used detuned V10 engines based on the 2005 units. For 2007, however, the company was left without a partner. Williams chose to switch to Toyota power. Scuderia Torro Rosso however made the switch to Ferrari engines, as used in 2006 by their mother team Red Bull Racing. The only option Cosworth had for 2007 was the newly-renamed Spyker-MF1 Racing (now Force India F1), but the team announced that it too will be using Ferrari engines.

With most major manufacturers currently opting to supply engines to a second F1 team, scope may be limited for Cosworth to return to the sport under its own name. However, since breaking its links with Ford it is highly likely that Cosworth may return to F1 as a specialist contractor and consultant, much as it has done in the past and as Ilmor did so successfully with Mercedes.

Other IndyCar and Champ Car engines

Cosworth designed a series of replacements for the DFS to be used in IndyCar and Champ Car racing: the X-series, beginning in 1992 with the XB. The XF was developed in 2000, and was chosen as the spec engine for the Champ Car World Series in 2003. The most recent derivative of the XF, the XFE quad-cam 90° V8 overhead camshaft, continued in that role through the 2007 season. The Champ Car World Series imposed a rev limit of 12,000 rpm. The 2004 model of the XFE had a rated power of nominal at 1054 mmHg (intake boost pressure), and a maximum power of at 1130 mmHg (during Push-to-Pass). The 2004 XFE maximum speed was 12,000 rpm (rev limited) and torque of . The Aluminium and Iron turbo housing ran a boost of 5.9 psi at sea level (= boost of 12 inches of mercury which is 41.5 inches of mercury absolute). The Methanol-fueled engine used a steel crankshaft and aluminum alloy pistons. Weight was and length was .

In 2007, the Ford name was removed from the engine pieces as the manufacturer elected not to continue sponsorship of the series. Several other engine changes were made, notably the removal of the calibrated "pop off valve" designed to limit turbo boost pressure, replaced by engine electronics. The rated life of the engine was 1,400 miles between rebuilds. Engines were sent by the race teams to Cosworth for the rebuild. In 2007, Champ Car switched to the new Panoz DP01 chassis, which was said to provide better ducting of airflow into the engine. The Champ Car World Series merged into the Indy Racing League IndyCar Series prior to the 2008 season, and Cosworth does not currently provide engines to any American open wheel racing series.

There is evidence that Cosworth was working on a pushrod V8 along the lines of the Ilmor/Mercedes 500I to exploit the peculiar loophole in the Indianapolis 500 rules permitting such engines higher turbocharger boost - this was assigned a project code (CD) but seemingly never completed.

In 2004 and 2005, Cosworth provided a Chevrolet badged engine to IRL IndyCar Series teams after the proprietary Chevrolet engine proved inadequate against rival Hondas and Toyotas during the 2003 season. While many teams left Chevrolet after the 2003 season, those that stayed saw a significant improvement in performance with the new "Chevworth" engine compared to their previous units.

Formula Atlantic engines

Currently these are inline-4 engines based on the Mazda MZR engine. Changes includes a billet crank, barrel throttle bodies, new head with larger valves, pistons, con rods and camshafts. A detuned version, targeting club racers, is sold to the consumer market. This engine retains the standard crankshaft, and has a different cylinder head. Both engines are built by Cosworth in Torrance, California.

Road cars

Apart from its relationship with Ford, which saw the creation of the Escort RS1600, Escort RS1800, RS200, Scorpio 2.9i 24V, Sierra Cosworth and Escort Cosworth, the company has developed engines to be used in various production cars. These included the Caterham CSR 200 and 260, as well as several from General Motors: the Chevrolet Vega, the Opel Ascona 400 and Manta 400, Opel Kadett and Opel Astra GSi, Opel Vectra and Opel Calibra turbo, and the 2.5 L V6 used in the Vectra, Calibra and Saab 900.

Mercedes-Benz (with the 190 E 2.3-16), Rolls-Royce, ARO and Audi (notably their RS cars) also benefitted from Cosworth engine technology.

Cosworth F1 car

Cosworth made an attempt at designing a full Formula 1 Grand Prix car in 1969. The car, designed by Robin Herd, used an original 4WD transmission designed by Keith Duckworth (different from the Ferguson used by all other 4WD F1 cars of the 1960s) and powered by a magnesium version of the DFV unit. The car was planned to drive at the 1969 British Grand Prix, but it was silently withdrawn. When Herd left to form March Engineering, the project was cancelled. The car is remembered by some as one of the ugliest F1 cars ever built. The external design of the car was a product of Herd's use of Mallite sheeting (a wood-aluminium laminate composite) for the principal structural monocoque sections, a technique he pioneered on the first McLaren single-seat cars, including the McLaren M2B of 1966.

Summary of F1 engine use

Season Engine Type Disp. Teams Wins Notes
1963 4 I4 1.5 Stebro, Lotus, Brabham 0 Ford entered to Formula One with Cosworth's Ford 4 engine
1964 MAE I4 1.5 Cooper 0
LF I4 1.5 Brabham
1965 4 I4 1.5 Brabham, Lotus, Cooper 0
1967 FVA I4 1.6 Matra 4

DFV V8 3.0 Lotus
1968 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, McLaren, Matra 11

1969 DFV V8 3.0 Matra, Brabham, Lotus, McLaren 11

1970 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, March, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Tyrrell, Bellasi, De Tomaso 8

1971 DFV V8 3.0 Tyrrell, March, Lotus, McLaren, Surtees, Brabham, Bellasi 7

1972 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Lotus, Tyrrell, Surtees, March, Brabham, Frank Williams Racing Cars, Connew 10

1973 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Brabham, March, Shadow, Surtees, Iso Marlboro, Ensign 15

1974 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Tyrrell, Lotus, Brabham, Hesketh, Shadow, March, Frank Williams Racing Cars, Surtees, Lola, Token, Trojan, Penske, Parnelli, Lyncar, Ensign, Amon, Maki 12

1975 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Brabham, Hesketh, Tyrrell, Shadow, March, Lotus, Williams, Parnelli, Hill, Penske, Ensign, Fittipaldi, Lyncar, Lola, Maki, Surtees 8

1976 DFV V8 3.0 Tyrrell, McLaren, Lotus, Penske, March, Shadow, Surtees, Fittipaldi, Ensign, Parnelli, Wolf-Williams, Williams, Kojima, Hesketh, Maki, Brabham, Boro 10

1977 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, McLaren, Wolf, Tyrrell, Shadow, Fittipaldi, Ensign, Surtees, Penske, Williams, Boro, LEC, McGuire, Kojima, Hesketh, March 12
1978 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, Tyrrell, Wolf, Fittipaldi, McLaren, Arrows, Williams, Shadow, Surtees, Ensign, Martini, Hesketh, ATS, Theodore, Merzario 9

1979 DFV V8 3.0 Williams, Ligier, Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Arrows, Shadow, ATS, Fittipaldi, Kauhsen, Wolf, Brabham, Ensign, Rebaque, Merzario 8

  • Cosworth-powered teams took 2nd, 3rd and 4th place in Constructors Championship

1980 DFV V8 3.0 Williams, Ligier, Brabham, Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Arrows, Fittipaldi, Shadow, ATS, Osella, Ensign 11

1981 DFV V8 3.0 Williams, Brabham, McLaren, Lotus, Tyrrell, Arrows, Ensign, Theodore, ATS, Fittipaldi, Osella, March 8

1982 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Williams, Lotus, Tyrrell, Brabham, Arrows, ATS, Osella, Fittipaldi, March, Theodore, Ensign 8

1983 DFY V8 3.0 Williams, McLaren, Tyrrell 3

DFV V8 3.0 Williams, McLaren, Tyrrell, Arrows, Lotus, Theodore, Osella, RAM, Ligier
1984 DFY V8 3.0 Tyrrell 0
DFV V8 3.0 Arrows, Spirit
1985 DFY V8 3.0 Tyrrell 0
DFV V8 3.0 Minardi
1986 GBA V6-T 1.5 Haas Lola 0
  • First Cosworth engine to use a turbo in F1, and first non-V8 V engine

1987 GBA V6-T 1.5 Benetton 0

  • Benetton reach 1000+ bhp with qualifying spec turbo engine

DFZ V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Larrousse, AGS, March, Coloni
1988 DFR V8 3.5 Benetton 0
DFZ V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Rial, Minardi, Coloni, Larrousse, AGS, EuroBrun
DFV V8 3.0 Dallara
1989 HB V8 3.5 Benetton 1

DFR V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Arrows, Dallara, Minardi, Onyx, Ligier, Rial, AGS, Osella, Coloni
1990 HB V8 3.5 Benetton 2
DFR V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Arrows, Monteverdi, Ligier, Osella, Dallara, Coloni, AGS, Minardi
1991 HB V8 3.5 Benetton, Jordan 1

  • DFV-series' last F1 season (DFR)

DFR V8 3.5 Lola, Fondmetal, Coloni, AGS, Footwork
1992 HB V8 3.5 Benetton, Lotus, Fondmetal 1

1993 HB V8 3.5 McLaren, Benetton, Lotus, Minardi 6
1994 Zetec-R V8 3.5 Benetton 8

HB V8 3.5 Footwork, Minardi, Larrousse, Simtek
1995 Zetec-R V8 3.0 Sauber 0
ED V8 3.0 Minardi, Forti, Simtek
1996 JD Zetec-R V10 3.0 Sauber 0

  • First Cosworth V10 design
  • EC engine is a developed version of Zetec-R V8. The EC after Champion

EC Zetec-R V8 3.0 Forti
ED V8 3.0 Minardi
1997 VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Stewart 0
EC Zetec-R V8 3.0 Lola
ED V8 3.0 Tyrrell
1998 VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Stewart 0
JD Zetec-R V10 3.0 Tyrrell, Minardi
1999 CR-1 V10 3.0 Stewart 1
VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Minardi
2000 CR-2 V10 3.0 Jaguar 0

  • Ford use Cosworth for the engines' name, from this year
  • Minardi engines rebadged as Fondmetal

VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Minardi
2001 CR-3 V10 3.0 Jaguar 0

  • Minardi engines rebadged as European

VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Minardi
2002 CR-4 V10 3.0 Jaguar, 0
CR-3 V10 3.0 Arrows
2003 CR-5 V10 3.0 Jaguar 1

RS1 V10 3.0 Jordan
CR-3 V10 3.0 Minardi
2004 CR-6 V10 3.0 Jaguar 0

  • Jordan engines use Ford name

RS2 V10 3.0 Jordan
CR-3L V10 3.0 Minardi
2005 TJ2005 V10 3.0 Red Bull, Minardi 0
2006 CA2006 V8 2.4 Williams 0

  • Toro Rosso V10s rev-limited

TJ2005 V10 3.0 Toro Rosso

References

Literature

  • Bernd Tuchen, Ford in der Formel 1 1965 bis 1994. Die Geschichte des legendären Ford Cosworth DFV Motors. Seine Entstehung, seine Rennställe, seine Siege und Weltmeister (Büchenbach 2006/Verlag Dr. Faustus) (www.Verlag-Dr-Faustus.de) ISBN 978-3-933474-38-4
  • Graham Robson, Cosworth: The Search For Power, 4th ed, Haynes, 1999, ISBN 1-85960-610-5

External links

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