Constable

Constable

[kon-stuh-buhl or, especially Brit., kuhn-]
Constable, Henry, 1562-1613, English poet. After graduating from Cambridge in 1580 he went to Paris, where the atmosphere was more congenial for one of Roman Catholic faith. There he wrote Diana (1592), a volume of sonnets. In addition he was the author of four pastorals that appeared in England's Helicon (1600) and Spiritual Sonnets (1815). Constable's work is considered to have had an important influence on the development of the sonnet.
Constable, John, 1776-1837, English painter, b. Suffolk. Constable and Turner were the leading figures in English landscape painting of the 19th cent. Constable became famous for his landscapes of Suffolk, Hampstead, Salisbury, and Brighton. The son of a prosperous miller, he showed artistic talent while very young but did not devote himself to art until he was 23, when he went to London to study at the Royal Academy. Influenced by the 17th-century landscape painters Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain, his poetic approach to nature paralleled in spirit that of his contemporary, the poet Wordsworth. Constable's direct observations of nature and his free use of broken color were extraordinary in his day. He received but modest recognition in England, being tardily admitted to the Royal Academy in 1829. His work was more popular in France. In 1824, his View on the Stour (1819) and The Hay Wain (1821; National Gall., London) were exhibited at the Salon in Paris, winning gold medals. His work made a profound impression on the French romantics including the young Delacroix and Bonington. Later his painting influenced the Barbizon school and, more indirectly, the general course of French 19th-century landscape art. In the United States he is represented in the Metropolitan Museum and the Frick Collection, New York City, in the Mellon Center for British Art, New Haven, Conn., and in the galleries of Philadelphia, Toledo, and Chicago. Splendid examples of his work are contained in the National Gallery, London and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

See catalog of the latter collection by G. Reynolds (1960); C. R. Leslie, Memoirs of the Life of John Constable (enl. ed. 1937); collections of his letters by P. Holmes (1931) and R. B. Beckett (1962); biography by B. Taylor (1973); studies by C. Peacock (rev. ed. 1972) and R. Gadney (1976).

Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds, oil on canvas by John elipsis

(born June 11, 1776, East Bergholt, Suffolk, Eng.—died March 31, 1837, London) British painter. The artist's father was a wealthy man who owned mills at Flatford and Dedham, on the Suffolk and Essex banks of the Stour, respectively. Constable began his career in 1799 after entering the Royal Academy Schools in London. In the years 1809 to 1816 he established his mastery and evolved his individual manner, concentrating on the scenes that had delighted him as a boy: the village lanes, the fields and meadows running down to the Stour, barges drawn by tow horses, and the vessels passing the locks at Flatford or Dedham. In 1813–14 he filled two sketchbooks, which survive intact, with over 200 landscape drawings. After about 1816 Constable began to embody his concept of the Suffolk countryside in a series of canvases monumental enough to make an impression in exhibitions of the Royal Academy; his best-known work from this period is The Hay-Wain (1821). These works reveal Constable's detailed study of the formation of clouds, the colour of meadows and trees, and the effect of light glistening on leaves and water. Especially later in his career, he was considered a master of watercolour as well as oil painting on canvas. He is ranked with J.M.W. Turner as one of the greatest 19th-century British landscape painters.

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Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds, oil on canvas by John elipsis

(born June 11, 1776, East Bergholt, Suffolk, Eng.—died March 31, 1837, London) British painter. The artist's father was a wealthy man who owned mills at Flatford and Dedham, on the Suffolk and Essex banks of the Stour, respectively. Constable began his career in 1799 after entering the Royal Academy Schools in London. In the years 1809 to 1816 he established his mastery and evolved his individual manner, concentrating on the scenes that had delighted him as a boy: the village lanes, the fields and meadows running down to the Stour, barges drawn by tow horses, and the vessels passing the locks at Flatford or Dedham. In 1813–14 he filled two sketchbooks, which survive intact, with over 200 landscape drawings. After about 1816 Constable began to embody his concept of the Suffolk countryside in a series of canvases monumental enough to make an impression in exhibitions of the Royal Academy; his best-known work from this period is The Hay-Wain (1821). These works reveal Constable's detailed study of the formation of clouds, the colour of meadows and trees, and the effect of light glistening on leaves and water. Especially later in his career, he was considered a master of watercolour as well as oil painting on canvas. He is ranked with J.M.W. Turner as one of the greatest 19th-century British landscape painters.

Learn more about Constable, John with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Constable is a town in Franklin County, New York, United States. The population was 1,428 at the 2000 census. The town is named after William Constable, a member of the syndicate of original land owners.

The Town of Constable is on the northern border of the county and is north of the Village of Malone.

History

The Town of Constable was founded in 1807 from part of the Town of Malone. Its territory was reduced later to form other towns: Fort Covingtion (1817) and Westville (1829).

An early business opportunity involved "line stores," constructed so part of the shop was in Canada and the other end in the United States, allowing subtle shifting of merchandise across the border without the inconvenience of customs duties.

During the Civil War, draftable men slipped easily across the border to Canada to avoid military service.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 32.8 square miles (85.0 km²), all of it land.

The north town line is the international border between the United States and Canada and is the border of Quebec.

New York State Route 122 is an east-west highway in the town. New York State Route 30 intersects NY-122 at Constable village.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,428 people, 533 households, and 390 families residing in the town. The population density was 43.5 people per square mile (16.8/km²). There were 607 housing units at an average density of 18.5/sq mi (7.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.55% White, 0.07% African American, 1.47% Native American, 0.07% Asian, and 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.14% of the population.

There were 533 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.8% were non-families. 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the town the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 104.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.4 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $31,029, and the median income for a family was $36,488. Males had a median income of $27,955 versus $21,354 for females. The per capita income for the town was $14,149. About 12.3% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over.

Communities and locations in Constable

  • Constable -- A hamlet near the center of the town on Route 30 at the junction with NY-122.
  • Trout River -- A stream flowing northward across the border into Canada, flowing past both Constable village and the community of Trout River.
  • Trout River -- A hamlet on the border of Canada at the junction of NY-30 and County Road 20. The community is a port of entry and has a similarly named community across the border in Quebec.

References

External links

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