Codex on the Flight of Birds
is a relatively short codex
of circa 1505 by Leonardo da Vinci
. It comprises 18 folios
and measures 21 × 15 centimetres. Now held at the Biblioteca Reale
, Italy, the codex begins with an examination of the flight
behavior of birds
and proposes mechanisms for flight by machines. Da Vinci constructed a number of these machines, and attempted to launch them from a hill near Florence
. However, his efforts failed.
In the codex, Da Vinci notes for the first time that the center of gravity of a flying bird does not coincide with its center of pressure.
- Cremante, Simona. "Leonardo Da Vinci". Giunti, 2005.
- Crispino, Enrica; Pedretti, Carlo; Frost, Catherine. "Leonardo: Art and Science". Giunti, 2001. ISBN 8-8090-1511-8
- Pedretti, Carlo. "A Chronology of Leonardo Da Vinci's Architectural Studies after 1500". Geneva: E. Droz, 1962.