Climacoceratidae ("Ladder Horns") is a family of superficially deer-like artiodactyl ungulates that were restricted to the Miocene of Africa. They are close to the ancestry of giraffes, with some genera, such as Prolibytherium, having originally identified as being giraffes.

The climacoceratids, namely, of what is now the type genus Climacoceras, were once originally placed within the family Palaeomerycidae, and then within Giraffidae. In 1978, Hamilton erected a new family, placing it close to Giraffidae.

They differ from giraffes, in that the antler-like ossicones are derived from different bones.


  • MacInnes, D. G. 1936, "A new genus of fossil deer from the Miocene of Africa", Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology 39: 521-530.
  • Hamilton, W. R., 1978, "Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae", 495-508, in Maglio, V. J. & Cooke, H. B. S., (eds.) "Evolution of African mammals", Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England, 1978, xiv-641

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