Caraş-Severin (Serbian: Караш Северин, Karaš Severin, Croatian: Karaš-Severin; Hungarian: Krassó-Szörény, Bulgarian: Караш-Северин, Karash-Severin) is a county (judeţ) of Romania, in historical region Banat, with the county seat at Reşiţa.
The county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisa euroregion.
In 2002, it had a population of 333,219 and a population density of 39/km².
The majority of the population (88.24%) are Romanians. There are also Roma (2.37%), Croats (1.88%), Germans (1.84%), Serbs (1.82%), Hungarians (1.74%) and Ukrainians (1.05%).
|| County population |
|| 302,254 |
|| 327,787 |
|| 358,726 |
|| 385,577 |
|| 376,347 |
|| 333,219 |
With 8,514 km²
, it is the third largest county in Romania, after Timiş
counties. It is also the county through which the Danube River
The mountains make up 67% of the county's surface, including the Southern Carpathians range, with Banat Mountains, Ţarcu-Godeanu Mountains and Cernei Mountains and elevations between 600 and 2100 m. Transition hills between mountains and the Banat Plain lie in the western side of the ocunty.
The Danube enters Romania in the vicinity of Baziaş, bordering Serbia. Timiş, Cerna, Caraş and Nera cross the county, some of them through spectacular valleys and gorges.
History and Economy
In 1718 the county was part of the Habsburg Monarchy
, in its province named Banat. The county seat, Reşiţa
, was founded in 1771 and became a modern industrial
center during the Austrian occupation. The area received considerable attention due to its mines
industry. In 1855, the entire Banat area, with its supplies of mineral deposits and timber, was transferred from the Austrian Treasury to an Austrian and French mining and railroad
company named StEG
. StEG built the Oraviţa
line -- Romania's oldest railroad track.
After World War I
, StEG, Banat and most of Austro-Hungarian
property were taken over by a company named UDR. The arrival of the communist regime in Romania after WWII and that regime's campaign of nationalization
of the mining industry brought tremendous social upheaval in the area.
Archaeological findings show the area has been populated since Paleolithic
times. There is a County Museum of History in Resita, displaying archeological artifacts, and, in the town of Ocna de Fier
, the Constantin Gruiescu
Mineralogical Collection. The county hosts the regional daffodil
festivals in the Spring.
Sites worth visiting:
- Cheile Nerei - Beuşinta National Park;
- Semenic - Cheile Caraşului National Park;
- Domogled - Valea Cernei National Park;
- Danube Iron Gate National Park;
- Semenic resort;
- Băile Herculane resort.
The county has 2 municipalities, 6 towns, and 69 communes.