is a family
Siluriformes), called armored catfishes
due to the two rows of bony plates (or scutes) running down the length of the body. This family contains some of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish, such as the Corydoras
The family derives its name from the Greek words kallis
(beautiful) and ichthys
(fish). Callichthyidae is one of six families in the superfamily Loricarioidea
. It is sister to a clade
formed by Scoloplacidae
, and Loricariidae
. Within the family Callichthyidae, there are two subfamilies with eight genera and about 177 species. They account for about 7% of all catfish. Most of these species are in the genus Corydoras
, the largest catfish genus.
The subfamily Corydoradinae includes about 90% of the species in the family Callichthyidae and is one of the most diverse siluriform assemblages in the Neotropics, with approximately 170 valid species. It includes two tribes, Aspidoradini and Corydoradini. Aspidoradini contains Aspidoras and Scleromystax, while Corydoradini contains only Corydoras. The genus Brochis was recently synonymized with Corydoras.
The subfamily Callichthyinae contains Callichthys, Dianema, Hoplosternum, Lepthoplosternum, and Megalechis. According to a 1997 paper, Callichthys is the most basal member of the subfamily. In a 2004 study, different relationships among the callichthyines were found: Dianema + Hoplosternum form the most basal clade, and Callichthys is sister to Lepthoplosternum + Megalechis.
The first known fossil species of callichthyid is Corydoras revelatus
of the late Paleocene
. This species is tentatively placed in Corydoras
, but is unambiguously a member of the subfamily Corydoradinae. It indicates that the lineages leading to the two callichthyid subfamilies occurred at least by the late Paleocene. It also suggests an earlier differentiation of loricarioids
in comparison to other catfishes, or a lack of older fossils of other Neotropical groups.
A fossil identified as Hoplosternum sp. has also been identified from the middle Miocene in the La Venta formation, Magdalena River basin, Colombia.
family Callichthyidae is found in most South American
river drainages (Paraná
, São Francisco
Coastal basins in Brazil
), as well as in a few rivers in Panama
. They present highest diversity in the headwaters of the Amazonas drainage and those rivers draining the Guiana Shield
The subfamily Corydoradinae has a predominantly cis-Andean distribution north of the Rio de La Plata system, in Argentina. Representatives of the Corydoradinae are found in several freshwater environments, ranging from fastflowing piedmont streams with sandy or rocky bottom to lowland pools with muddy bottom.
Callichthyids are fairly small catfish, and range in size from some tiny Corydoras
species that do not exceed 2 centimetres
) to Hoplosternum littorale
, with some sources listing it growing to a length of up to 24.0 centimetres
. The mouth is small and ventral with one or two pairs of well-developed barbels. The dorsal
and pectoral fins
have strong spines, and there is a spine at the anterior border of the adipose fin.
The scutes that give these fish their namesake are one of the most obvious characteristics of these fish. The body has two rows of overlapping bony plates on each side. These plates are arranged so they overlap along the rows as well as between the rows, giving full protection but at the same time allowing a certain freedom of movement. Anteriorly, these scutes are connect with the solid bones of the head and the head itself may be covered with bony plates. The upper row of lateral scutes may either meet on the back or there may be a narrow bare area that may be filled in with small oval or roundish bony platelets.
Species of the Corydoradinae are of small size (maximum about 90 millimetres in standard length) and are easily distinguished from other callichthyids by their deep bodies and short maxillary barbels.
Living habits are varied; the family includes both bottom foraging and mid-water species. Callichthyids inhabit a wide range of habitats, from small, swift, oxygen-rich creeks to big rivers and flooded areas. Their habitats may even included swampy and muddy habitats where oxygen may be virtually absent. Callichthyids survive in these conditions by breathing air; air is collected at the water surface and swallowed. The intestines
are used to absorb oxygen, and the air is expelled from the anus
. The anterior digestive intestine packages digesta into a string of slightly compressed boluses
, creating an air channel in the digestive intestine thus allowing air to pass unimpeded. The posterior intestine is modified for respiration into a thin-walled and highly vascularized structure by reduction of the thickness of the epithelium, submucosa and muscle layers; though highly modified to absorb air, it is inefficient for digestive purposes. Air moving through the digestive tract facilitates the movement of digesta to the rectum
. Unlike other catfish such as loricariids
that may breathe air only under hypoxic
conditions, callichthyids breathe air under all water conditions. Some callichthyids are able to absorb air through their hindgut to move short distances on land. Air stored in their digestive tract also accounts for 75% of the necessary air for neutral buoyancy
Breeding habits are also variable. Corydoradines breed over the substrate (such as rocks, logs, or leaves) as most catfish. However, the members of the subfamily Callichthyinae are known for building and guarding floating foam nests (see bubble nest); Hoplosternum littorale is reported to have the most complex nest structure. These floating nests are made of foam and vegetal debris. Spawning and caring for the eggs and larvae takes place in these nests. Parental care in callichthyines is by the male. In Corydoras and Hoplosternum, fertilization of eggs involves sperm drinking; the female and male form the "T-position" with the female's mouth over the male's genital opening, and then the female drinks the sperms, releasing the sperm and eggs simultaneously.
Relationship to humans
Some species are quite common in South America and are fished commercially. They are usually cooked in their bony armor. Some callichthyids, especially species of Corydoras
, are popular as ornamental fish in the fishkeeping hobby