Cajamarca's place in history is secured by the tragedy of 1532. Atahualpa had beaten his brother Huáscar in a battle for the Inca throne in Quito. On his way to Cusco to claim the throne with his army of 80,000 soldiers, he stopped at Cajamarca. Francisco Pizarro and his 168 soldiers met Atahualpa here after weeks of marching from Piura. Fernando de Soto and friar Vicente de Valverde delivered the "Requirement". Atahualpa refused, effectively giving Pizarro the excuse to declare the Inca an enemy of the Church and Spain. Audaciously, the Spanish Conquistadors captured Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca, massacring several thousand unarmed Inca civilians and soldiers.
Once the Spanish had Atahualpa, they held him captive in Cajamarca's main temple. They were able to convince Atahualpa's generals not to attack by threatening to kill their king if they did. But the Conquistadors were also trapped, with only a small force. Atahualpa at first did not fully understand the intentions of the Spanish conquistadors, yet he offered them a ransom for his freedom. The Inca emperor offered Pizarro a room filled with gold and twice over with silver, within two months. The Spanish were pleased by this offer, but never intended to release Atahualpa.
This room became known as El Cuarto del Rescate, or "The Ransom Room". Tourists to Cajamarca can see a room by this name in Cajamarca, but most likely the room was Atahualpa's cell, not his ransom room. In the end Atahualpa had misjudged the Conquistadors; after they had the ransom, they executed him.
In 1986 the Organization of American States declared Cajamarca a Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Americas.
El Ultimo Inka Atahualpa lo mataron los espanoles en cajamarca.Segun la historia dice que antes de ser ahoracado en la plaza de armas lo bautizaron con el Nombre de Juan Athualpa.