Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Καισαρίων, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar, Kaisaríōn (June 23, 47 BC–August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt from September 2 44 BC to August, 30 BC, when he was killed on orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus.
The eldest son of Cleopatra VII, Caesarion is considered (and it is highly likely, given the evidence) the son of Julius Caesar, for whom he was named.
During the tense period of time leading up to the final showdown between Mark Antony and Octavian (future Emperor Augustus), Antony, who at that time shared control of the Republic in a triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus, granted various eastern lands and titles to Caesarion and to his own three children with Cleopatra (in 34 BC). Caesarion was proclaimed "King of Kings." Most threatening to Octavian (whose claim to power was based on his status as Julius Caesar's grand-nephew and adopted son), Antony declared Caesarion to be Caesar's true son and heir. These proclamations, known as the Donations of Alexandria, caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support for war against Antony and Cleopatra.
When Octavian invaded Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra VII sent Caesarion, then seventeen years old, to the Red Sea port of Berenice for safety, with possible plans of an escape to India. Octavian captured the city of Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC, the date that marks the official annexation of Egypt to the Roman Republic. Mark Antony had committed suicide prior to Octavian's entry into the capital; Cleopatra followed his example by committing suicide on August 12, 30 BC. Caesarion's guardians, including his tutor, either were themselves lured by false promises of mercy into returning the boy to Alexandria or perhaps even betrayed him; the records are unclear. Octavian had Caesarion executed there, with the words "Two Caesars is one too many". No events concerning his death have been documented, but due to his young age it is supposed he was executed by strangulation.
Octavian then assumed absolute control of Egypt. The year 30 BC was considered the first year of the new ruler's reign according to the traditional chronological system of Egypt. In lists of the time Octavian himself appears as a Pharaoh and the successor to Caesarion.
These are usually translated as:
Source: Chronicle of the Pharaohs, by Peter Clayton (1994), ISBN 0500050740