Córdoba, abbreviated as CBA, is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas mountains on the Suquía River, about 700 km west-northwest from Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province.
Córdoba has been Argentina's third most important city since the end of the 16th century, and the second industrial center in the country, but retains many of its historical buildings dating from the colonial era.
Córdoba was founded on July 6
by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera
, who named it after Córdoba, Spain
. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region that is now Argentina (older city was Santiago del Estero
, founded in 1553). The Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
is the oldest university in Argentina. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order
After the end of World War II, Córdoba became a major centre for the Argentine aircraft industry, and the site of The Instituto Aerotécnico later it became the Fábrica Militar de Aviones. It employed the Focke Wulf men until President Juan Perón was ousted by a coup in 1955. Lockheed Martin purchased FMA in the late 1990s.
Córdoba has many historical monuments preserved from the times of Spanish colonialism, especially buildings of the Roman Catholic Church. The most recognizable is perhaps the Jesuit Block (Spanish: Manzana Jesuítica), declared in 2000 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO . It is a block of buildings dating from the 17th century, including the Montserrat School, the University (today the historical museum of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba) and the church of the Society of Jesus.
- El Centro (Spanish for "city centre") is the most important commercial area, as well as the most important financial area. There are banks like Bank of Córdoba and other private banking institutions. There's also a variety of restaurants with varying food and prices. Sightseeing places include San Martín square, Jesuit Block (declared UNESCO World Heritage Site) and Genaro Perez Museum. Main avenues and streets are Vélez Sarsfield, Colón Avenue, *General Paz, Dean Funes and 27 de Abril where most buses have a bus-stop.
- Nueva Córdoba is home to shopping malls like Patio Olmos, big buildings, pubs, disco clubs, squares, restaurants, supermarkets and other entertainment and commercial centres. This district includes very important buildings from large companies like Motorola and Intel. An important cultural place is Palacio Ferreyra. It's a mansion built in 1916 based on plans by the French architect, Paul Sanson. It is located at the corner of Hipólito Yrigoyen and Chacabuco, and has now been restored and adapted to house the principal art gallery of the city. Nueva Cordoba has a number of important avenues like Yrigoyen and Velez Sarsfield. In this neighborhood live most of the university students of this growing city, several buildings are being built transforming this area in the fastest-growing areas of the city. This neighborhood has his own web site: Portal Nueva Cba .com
- Ciudad Universitaria (Spanish for "University City") district is located in the south area of the city, next to the Parque Sarmiento park. The Universidad Nacional de Córdoba has most of its facilities in this area. It's the first university built in Argentina by Jesuits, an it's very well known in all the world because its prestige. Many important scientists that are required around the world studied there. Also, in March 1918, students at the National University of Cordoba (UNC) rebelled against the university system, accusing professors of being authoritarian, inefficient, clerically oriented, and obscurantist. The distinctive nature of the movement derived not only from its radical demands, but also from its extremist tactics, the level of sophistication of its organization, and its major continental impact. In fact, the Reform Movement rapidly spread from Cordoba to Lima (1919), Cuzco (1920), Santiago de Chile (1920), and Mexico (1921). Another important university, the UTN, dedicated to the teaching of engineering sciences, is located in this part of the city. There are also a gym and football stadium and tennis courts for the students. The Córdoba Zoo is located in the district.
- Argüello is located about 6 kilometers (3.75 miles) from Cerro de Las Rosas. It is famous for its well-known high schools such as Colegio Aleman, La Salle and Colegio del Carmen, other very prestigious high school in Cordoba is San Jose from Sol de Mayo, that is located in Alto Alberdi. Over the last decade, this neighborhood has experienced steady growth. Especially in the area of Barrio La Carolina, where private gated communities such as Las Delicias and *Lomas de La Carolina have hosted important celebrities and government officials such as former Argentine President Carlos Menem and basketball legend Marcelo Milanesio from Asociación Deportiva Atenas.
Since World War II, Córdoba has been developing a versatile industrial base. The biggest sectors are car manufacturing (Renault, Volkswagen, Fiat), railway construction (Materfer) and aircraft construction (Fábrica Militar de Aviones, currently shared between the government and Lockheed Martin). Furthermore there are textile, heavy and chemical industry and some agrobusiness.
Córdoba has been considered the technological centre of Argentina. The Argentinian spaceport (Centro Espacial Teófilo Tabanera) in the suburb Falda del Carmen, where satellites are being constructed and operated is located in the area. The software (Motorola, Vates, Intel, Electronic Data Systems, Santex América) and electronic industries are advancing and exporting more and more goods.
, like in the rest of Argentina, is the most popular sport. Several leagues and divisions compete in the local championship annually. Some important teams are Talleres
, Racing de Córdoba, and General Paz Juniors
Basketball could arguably be the second most popular sport in Córdoba city. Asociación Deportiva Atenas is the most popular club, and one of the most successful in Argentina, having won the National League (LNB) seven times, and being three times winner of the South American League.
Rugby union is also a very popular sport in Córdoba, which has close to 20 teams with many divisions. Tala Rugby Club, La Tablada,Palermo Bajo, and the Cordoba Athletic Club (one of the oldest clubs in Argentina and founded by the British who worked in the building of the Argentine Railroads around 1882) are some of the most prestigious teams. Cordoba is one of the stronger rugby places in Argentina, and is the home of many international players. Many of the great players in Argentina and Italy began their carriers in the rugby clubs of Cordoba.
Golf and tennis are also very popular; notable player that started playing in Cordoba include Ángel "Pato" Cabrera in golf and David Nalbandián in tennis.
The Argentine stage of the World Rally Championship has been run not far from the city since 2004.
Hockey and tennis are also important sports in Córdoba.
Culture and contemporary life
Córdoba has long been considered one of the most culturally rich cities of Argentina. Literary activity flourished in the city at the beginning of the last century. Córdoba was the city of Leopoldo Lugones
, Arturo Capdevila and Marcos Aguinis, among other many prestigious writers.
The typical music in Córdoba is the cuarteto
. It can be heard in many parties and pubs. The most popular cuarteto singers are: Carlos Mona Jiménez
, La Barra and Jean Carlos among others. The places they usually sing are named bailes
(dances). One of the first groups was Cuarteto de Oro
Córdoba also enjoys a rich musical culture that includes classical, jazz, rock, pop and electronic in a variety of bars, pubs and dancing clubs. Córdoba is house of the Teatro San Martín, that regularly features classical music, folk music, theater plays, etc.
Córdoba has many historical monuments left over from the colonial era. In the centre, near the Plaza San Martín square, is the Jesuit Cathedral, whose altar is made of stone and silver from Potosí. Every ornament inside is made of gold and the roof is all painted with different images from the Bible. Another important building is the Cabildo (colonial government house), located next to the church. The Jesuit Block, the Monserrat School, the University and the church of the Society of Jesus are located in Córdoba.
Different festivals occur year-round. The first is in February, the Carnaval
, where children enjoy throwing water balloons at each other on the street.
Then in the middle of the year, on July 20, Friends Day is celebrated. Usually, most of the teenagers meet at Parque de las Naciones or Parque Sarmiento and spend the afternoon there. At night, they go dancing to different places, and enjoy a drink.
The last festival is Spring Day, held on September 21, which is Students' Day. Many go to the park or spend the day in the nearby city of Villa Carlos Paz. There they can enjoy lots of activities like concerts, dancing, going down town or visiting the river bank.
- Teatro el Libertador, formerly known as Rivera Indarte
- Teatro Comedia
- Teatro San Martín
- Teatro Colón
The city's nightlife is very active and has attracted residents and tourists alike, the following nightclubs and pubs, also known as boliches
, are hot spots among the young locals:
- North zone: Club F, Hill Rose, Contender, Villa Pancho, Infierno, Container, Cruz, Carreras, Lokitas, Maria Lopez, Living Four, El Colono.
- Nueva Cordoba: Alquimia, La Quema, La Morada, La barra, La Coqueta, La Osa Disco, ButMitre, La Chacra, Estudio Theatre, Rock and Fellers, Jhonny B Good, La Divina, Moog Bar, Uscha.
- Abasto zone: Next to the Suquia river, it is the most diverse entertainment zone in the city. Here you can find cuarteto (Punta Alvear), karaoke rock pubs (El bebedero), live rock acts (Casa Babylon, 990 arte club), electronic music discos (Club V, Peekaboo), pop discos (Vilaro), and many other interesting places, such as El Ojo Bizarro, Moscú, , La Jungla, Gabana, Oxi
- Bailes (Cuarteto): Vieja Usina, Club Deportivo, Estadio del Centro, Palm Beach, Sala del Rey, Loft Disco, Maracaná, Complejo Forja, Sargento Cabral, Estadio Juniors.
- Alta Córdoba: A new zone is being formed in the neighbourhood of Alta Córdoba with a growing number of nightclubs and pubs: Morado, Container, La Previa, Rivadavia, VanRohe, Kubic, Corre Lola, Modo, Matame Rodriguez, Sha.
Córdoba also has a long list of upscale dining establishments serving a wide array of cuisine, some notable destinations include Supperclub, Sushiclub, and Johnny B. Good in the Barrio Cerro de las Rosas.
The Cordoba public transport system includes buses, trolleybuses and taxis. Long-distance buses reach most cities and towns throughout the country.
There is a long-distance railway passenger service twice weekly overnight service to Buenos Aires and a once weekly overnight service northwest to Tucumán and stations in-between provided by Ferrocentral.
The Argentine government had projected to build a high-speed train between Buenos Aires-Rosario-Córdoba. Originally scheduled to be started in 2008, with its inauguration in 2010, it is still waiting for financing to be completed. It will eventually join Córdoba and Buenos Aires, with an intermediate stop in Rosario, in about 3 hours at speeds of up to 350 km/h.
The city is served by the nation's third largest airport Ingeniero Ambrosio L.V. Taravella International Airport.
Córdoba has 17 twin cities: