It was created in 1837 as Byneset formannskapsdistrikt. According to the 1835 census the municipality had a population of 2,143. In 1855 the parish Buvik was separated from Byneset to constitute a separate municipality, leaving Byneset with a population of 2,109.
On 1 January 1964 Byneset was incorporated into the urban municipality Trondheim, along with Leinstrand, Strinda and Tiller. Byneset was the smallest municipality prior to the merger, with a population of 2,049.
The largest village in Byneset is Spongdal.