See his autobiography, Forty Years of It (1914), and his letters and journals (ed. with biographical introduction by A. Nevins, 2 vol., 1936). See also biography by D. D. Anderson (1968); studies by J. Tager (1968) and R. M. Crunden (1969).
Orange is the brand used by France Telecom for its mobile network operator and Internet service provider subsidiaries. The brand was created in 1994 for Hutchison Telecom's UK mobile phone network, which was acquired by France Telecom in 2001. In 2006, the company's ISP operations, previously Wanadoo, were also rebranded Orange. Orange is now the unique commercial façade of almost all France Telecom services.
It also franchises the Orange Brand in Israel (see Orange Israel) and has franchised it in Australia, India (until 2006) and Hong Kong in the past. It had a joint venture with Charoen Pokphand in Thailand until 2005.
As of December 31, 2007 France Telecom serves more than 170 million customers in five continents, of which two thirds are Orange customers. The group had consolidated sales of € 52.9 billion in 2007. As of December 31, 2007 the group had 109.7 million mobile customers and 11.7 million broadband internet (ADSL) customers.
Orange also belongs to the FreeMove mobile phone alliance.
Microtel Communications Ltd was formed in April 1990 as a consortium comprising Pactel Corporation, British Aerospace, Millicom and French company Matra (British Aerospace soon acquired full control of the company). In 1991 Microtel was awarded a license to develop a mobile network in the UK, and in July 1991 Hutchison Telecommunications (UK) Ltd acquired Microtel from BAe. BAe was paid in Hutchison Telecommunications (UK) Ltd. shares, giving the company a 30% share. Microtel was renamed Orange Personal Communications Services Ltd. in 1994. The Orange brand was created by an internal team at Microtel headed by Chris Moss (Marketing Director) and supported by Martin Keogh, Rob Furness and Ian Pond. The brand consultancy Wolff Olins was charged with designing the brand values and logo and advertising agency WCRS created the Orange slogan "The Future's bright, the Future's Orange" along with the now famous advertising.The logo is square because it was felt that the word orange could be seen as a fruit and it needed to be strong in the business world rather like American Express and Hertz. It was also important to establish it as the colour orange, which is seen as a strong feng shui colour. The Orange network was launched on 28 April 1994.
Orange plc was formed in 1995 as a holding company for the Orange group. France Telecom formed the present company in 2001 after acquiring Orange plc (which had been acquired by Mannesmann AG, itself purchased by Vodafone shortly after, leading Vodafone to divest Orange) and merging its existing mobile operations into the company. The company was initially 100% owned by France Telecom (although there were and still remain minority investors in some of the national operating companies). In 2001 15% was sold in an IPO, but in 2003 the outstanding shares where reacquired by France Telecom.
The origin of the name Wanadoo is subject to some controversy, as some maintain it came about in the late 1990s when many internet at France Telecom, much in line with a number of other such projects such as Intranoo, Tatoo, Netatoo and @noo.
Wanadoo was floated on the stock market on 18 July 2000. In 2000, Wanadoo also took over the major British ISP Freeserve, which had previously been part of the Dixons Group (now DSG International plc). Following the buy-out, Freeserve maintained its own branding for a while before finally changing to the Wanadoo name on 28 April 2004.
However, the name Wanadoo changed to Orange on 1 June 2006 to simplify branding by the common parent company, France Telecom. This merging of companies has created a single brand offering mobile telecommunications and internet services.
At the beginning of 2006, Orange in Slovakia started providing triple-play services via FTTH under the name "Orange Homebox".
On 27 September 2007, T-Mobile Netherlands bought Orange Netherlands from France Telecom and split the two segments. Mobile telephony was integrated with T-Mobile, broadband is now provided by a subsidiary called Online. The European Commission had already approved the acquisition as it was not seen as a danger to competition .
In 2008 Orange was given permission from Apple to sell the iPhone in Austria, Belgium, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Jordan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland and Orange’s African markets.
On 1 February 2006, Hutchison Telecom announced that its Australian affiliate would withdraw the Orange brand name. Its CDMA network was shut down on August 9, 2006, after the vast majority of its customers had already migrated to the 3 network (also owned by Hutchison).
Orange SA pulled out of its joint venture with Thailand's TelecomAsia, TA Orange, in 2003. TelecomAsia (now True Corporation) continued to use the Orange brand until 2006, when the operator was rebranded as True Move.
The Orange brand continues to be used under licence by Partner Communications Company Ltd. in Israel.
Most operations in Orange SA are also branded Orange, but not all - the exceptions being Mobistar in Belgium, Mobinil in Egypt and Optimus Telecomunicações in Portugal. In general, these operations are not a majority holding of the Orange Group.
The situation in Belgium is unusual. Prior to the acquisition by France Telecom, Orange plc owned and operated a network there called Orange. Since France Telecom also owned the market leader Mobistar, one of the two networks had to be sold following the sale. A decision was made to sell Orange to KPN and keep Mobistar. Orange continued to trade for a while after the sale to KPN before rebranding to BASE. So for a period of time in Belgium, the Orange owned company Mobistar was competing with an operator called Orange.
A consumer organization forum web site known as OrangeProblems focuses on the poor level of service provided by Orange Broadband in the UK. Initially set up as WanadooProblems.co.uk, the site focuses on the infamous Orange Local Loop Unbundling and poor Customer service but covers a wider range of Orange operations.
Orange Mobile has been criticised during a Channel 4 News investigation for a lack of security which potentially exposed customer records to fraud.
In August 2007, Orange was criticized for summarily deleting email accounts tied to old Freeserve and Wanadoo pay-as-you-go dial-up accounts with no warning.
In August 2008, after well publicized problems with iPhone 3G performances, customers compared their download speed and discovered that Orange in France was capping 3G download bandwidth. Orange admitted capping to 384kbit/s, way below the theoretic 7.2Mbit/s provided by the iPhone.