Application of engineering principles and equipment to biology and medicine. It includes the development and fabrication of life-support systems for underwater and space exploration, devices for medical treatment (see dialysis, prosthesis), and instruments for monitoring biological processes. Development has been particularly rapid in the area of artificial organs, which culminated in the implantation of an artificial heart into a human being in 1982. Bioengineers also develop equipment that enables humans to maintain body functions in hostile environments, such as the space suits worn by astronauts during extravehicular maneuvers.
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Bioengineering (also known as Biological Engineering) is the application of engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of biology and medicine. As a study, it encompasses biomedical engineering and it is related to biotechnology.
Bioengineering applies engineering principles to the full spectrum of living systems. This is achieved by utilising existing methodologies in such fields as molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, cytology, immunology and neuroscience and applies them to the design of medical devices, diagnostic equipment, biocompatible materials, and other important medical needs.
Bioengineering is not limited to the medical field. Bioengineers have the ability to exploit new opportunities and solve problems within the domain of complex systems. They have a great understanding of living systems as complex systems which can be applied to many fields including entrepreneurship.
Much as other engineering disciplines also address human health (e.g., prosthetics in mechanical engineering), bioengineers can apply their expertise to other applications of engineering and biotechnology, including genetic modification of plants and microorganisms, bioprocess engineering, and biocatalysis. However, the Main Fields of Bioengineering may be categorised as:
The term bioengineering may also be applied to environmental modifications such as surface soil protection, slope stabilisation, watercourse and shoreline protection, windbreaks, vegetation barriers including noise barriers and visual screens, and the ecological enhancement of an area.