The Battle of Toulouse (April 10 1814) was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. The hundreds of Allied soldiers killed storming the city of Toulouse died unnecessarily, as the war was already over, though news had yet to reach the south of France. Marshal Soult held Toulouse until April 12 when, learning of Napoleon's abdication, and under menace of encirclement, he orchestrated an escape from the town with the better part of his army.
The city of Toulouse was garrisoned by around 42,000 French troops, under the command of Marshal Soult, Duke of Dalmatia. French forces across southern France were greatly demoralised by fighting the allied forces in their own country, and were further demoralised by news of repeated Coalition victories in northern and eastern France. French forces in Spain had been steadily pushed out of the country since 1809, resulting in endless guerilla wars which resulted in more than 300,000 French casualties by late 1813. The French suffered greater losses in manpower in southern France, as Napoleon diverted many southern forces to bolster his troops facing the Coalition armies invading northern and eastern France after an allied victory at Leipzig in 1813.
In the evening of April 10th, Soult received an official communiqué from Paris informing him that Napoleon had surrendered to the Coalition forces in northern France. Unsure of what to do, Soult's generals advised him to surrender the city, as reinforcements were unlikely to arrive and further news reached Toulouse informing Soult of the surrender of French armies across France. The French suffered some 3,200 casualties while the British, Portuguese and Spanish suffered over 4,500 dead and wounded.
With the surrender, French resistance in the south collapsed and the defeated Napoleon, who had already surrendered, was exiled to the island of Elba. The city was briefly placed under Coalition control during the summer of 1814, with the withdrawal of allied troops in September 1814.