The Battle of Benevento was fought near Benevento, in present-day Southern Italy, on February 26, 1266, between the troops of Charles of Anjou and Manfred of Sicily. Manfred's defeat and death resulted in the capture of the Kingdom of Sicily by Charles.
Charles had divided his cavalry into three "battles". The infantry and the first battle, consisting of 900 Provençals were at the front, commanded by Hugh of Mirepoix and Philip of Montfort, Lord of Castres; behind them the second battle, 400 Italians and 1,000 men of Languedoc and central France, Charles commanding in person; behind them, the third battle of about 700, the men of Flanders under Gilles II de Trasignies, Constable of France, and Robert III of Flanders.
Manfred had adopted similar dispositions. His Saracen archers were in the fore. Behind them was the first battle, 1,200 German mercenaries armed in coats-of-plates (a novelty at the time), commanded by his cousin Giordano d'Anglano and Galvano of Anglona. The second battle consisted of the Italian mercenaries, about 1,000, and 300 Saracen light horse, commanded by his uncle Galvano Lancia. The third battle, numbering 1,400, were the feudatories of the Kingdom, under Manfred's personal command.
The tide of battle now rapidly turned against Manfred. His troops were forced to defile across the single bridge over the Calore to reach the field. By the time his second battle had crossed the bridge, Charles had ordered his third battle to charge them on both flanks and they were swiftly destroyed. Upon the defeat of the Italians, most of the nobles in Manfred's third battle deserted him, leaving only the king and a few faithful followers. After exchanging the royal surcoat with his friend Tebaldo Annibaldi, Manfred and his followers charged into the fray and were slain.
Angevin art in Italy: the principal legacy of French rule over medieval Naples is a group of gothic churches. Impressive, but poorly documented, they receive detailed scrutiny in two recent books.(The Stones of Naples: Church Building in Angevin Italy, 1266-1343)(The Church of Santa Maria Donna Regina: Art, Iconography and Patronage in Fourteenth-Century Naples )(Book Review)
Dec 01, 2005; The Stones of Naples, Church Building in Angevin Italy, 1266-1343 Caroline Bruzelius, Yale University Press, 45 [pounds...