Banitsa (баница ['ba.ni.ʦə], also transliterated as banica and banitza) is a traditional Bulgarian pastry prepared by layering a mixture of whisked eggs and pieces of sirene (Bulgarian Feta cheese) between filo pastry and then baking it in an oven. Macedonian Bulgarians refer to it as zelnik, maznik, or more loosely as pita.
Traditionally, lucky charms (късмети, kasmeti) are put into the pastry on certain occasions, particularly on Christmas Eve, the first day of Christmas, or New Year's Eve. These charms may be coins or small symbolic objects (e.g., a small piece of a dogwood branch with a bud, symbolizing health or longevity). More recently, people have started writing happy wishes on small pieces of paper and wrapping them in tin foil. Wishes may include happiness, health, or success throughout the new year.
Banitsa is served for breakfast with plain yogurt, ayran, or boza. It can be eaten hot or cold. Some varieties include banitsa with spinach (spanachena banitsa) or the sweet version, banitsa with milk (mlechna banitsa) or pumpkin (tikvenik).
Another sort of banitsa is called tutmanik (тутманик) and is made with leavened sheets. The usual filling is cheese.
In some regions of Bulgaria, a filling with rice is made.
There are also meat fillings with minced meat, onions, and mushrooms.
Sweet fillings with apples (similar to apple pie or strudel) or pumpkin with sugar, walnuts, and cinnamon exist as well. In some regions, only the walnuts, sugar, and cinnamon are used. The apple variant is called shtrudel (щрудел), and the pumpkin variant is tikvenik (тиквеник).
Banitsa with milk is made by baking the leaves soaked in milk with sugar and vanilla.
An alternative method of preparation is taking each sheet of dough, laying it out flat and sprinkling some of the filling on it. Then, the sheet is rolled up into a tight roll with the filling on the inside of the roll. The long roll is then taken and rolled up in a circle. This first sheet of dough is then placed in the baking pan. The process is repeated with the remaining sheets of dough and each consecutive roll is placed around the first one in the pan. The resulting shape resembles a spiral (see photo). The banitsa is then sprinkled with vegetable oil and baked.
The word "banitsa" is used as a simile for something (mainly documents and paperwork) crumpled, or badly maintained. For example, a police officer can accuse someone of having his or her passport "become like a banitsa" (станал е на баница); a teacher might say this about a pupil's notebook. The same can be said for a very badly crushed car after an accident.
Another expression, popular in the 1980s, is "And maybe you'd like some banitsa hand delivered tomorrow for breakfast too?" (а банички с кисело мляко сутрин рано за закуска в леглото не искаш ли?), meaning "You want too much."
The word "tikvenik" is a metaphor for someone very stupid, e.g. "you are a big tikvenik" (голям си тиквеник), meaning "you are a pumpkin -head."