Avant-Garde and Kitsch
is the title of a 1939 essay by Clement Greenberg
, first published in the Partisan Review
, in which he claimed that avant-garde
art was a means to resist the 'dumbing down
' of culture caused by consumerism
. Greenberg termed this 'kitsch
', a word that his essay popularized.
Greenberg believed that the avant-garde
arose in order to defend aesthetic
standards from the decline of taste
involved in consumer society
, and seeing kitsch and art as opposites. He outlined this in his essay "Avant-Garde and Kitsch". One of his more controversial claims was that kitsch was equivalent to Academic art
: "All kitsch is academic, and conversely, all that is academic is kitsch." He argued this based on the fact that Academic art, such as that in the 19th century, was heavily centered in rules and formulations that were taught and tried to make art into something learnable and easily expressible. He later came to withdraw from his position of equating the two, as it became heavily criticized.
- Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Partisan Review. 6:5 (1939) 34-49.
- Greenberg, Clement. Art and Culture. Beacon Press, 1961
- Greenberg, Clement. Homemade Esthetics: Observations on Art and Taste. Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Rubenfeld, Florence. Clement Greenberg: A Life. Scribner, 1997.