Former monarchy, central Europe. Austria-Hungary at one time included Austria and Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Bukovina, Transylvania, Carniola, Küstenland, Dalmatia, Croatia, Fiume, and Galicia. The so-called Dual Monarchy, formed by the Compromise of 1867, created a king of Hungary in addition to the existing Austrian emperor; though these were the same person, Hungary was granted its own parliament and considerable autonomy. Francis Joseph held both h1s from Austria-Hungary's inception until his death in 1916. Up to 1914, the monarchy maintained a precarious balance among its many minorities; that year saw the balance toppled with the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Francis Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist that precipitated World War I. With its defeat in that war and revolutions by the Czechs, Yugoslavs, and Hungarians, the monarchy collapsed in 1918.
Learn more about Austria-Hungary with a free trial on Britannica.com.
The First Army was formed in 1914 as part of Austro-Hungarian mobilization following its declaration of war on Serbia and Russia. The First Army was put under the command of General Viktor Dankl von Krasnik. It was composed of the First, Fifth, and Tenth Corps, originating from Kraków, Presburg, and Przemyśl, respectively. The First Army earned the first Austro-Hungarian victory of World War I during its first campaign by defeating the Russian Fourth Army at the Battle of Krasnik in northern Galicia in late August 1914. General Puhallo replaced von Krasnik in May 1915 following the latter's transfer to the Italian Front. The First Army continued fighting on the Eastern Front, taking part in Austria-Hungary's difficult campaigns in Poland and Ukraine. In 1916 General Arthur Arz von Straussenburg became the new commander of the First Army.
The last commander of the First Army, General Franz Freiherr Rohr von Denta, replaced von Straussenberg in 1917. However, Austro-Hungarian casualties were extremely high on the Eastern Front, and the casualty-struck First Army had to be disbanded in 1917.