He was born at Hever, Kent, where his father, the Reverend William Wilberforce Battye, was Rector. The Rev. W.W. Battye was a descendant of Sir John Trevor (1626-1672) and inherited Trevor estates in 1883. Upon his death in 1890 his surviving family took the heraldic arms of Trevor and the surname Trevor-Battye.
After graduating from Christ Church, Oxford, in 1887, Aubyn Trevor-Battye travelled widely in North America and Europe, studying ornithology, shooting game and fishing. In 1894 he made an expedition to the Russian island of Kolguyev in the Barents Sea to study its natural history, especially the birds, and the topography (Trevor-Battye 1895). He and his assistant had to make a long unplanned return through northern Russia as winter closed in, an adventure that brought Trevor-Battye to prominence on his return to Britain (Trevor-Battye 1898). He was then invited to join William Martin Conway's expedition to Spitsbergen in 1896, as their zoologist.
During a period devoted to writing and editing he married Margaret Amy Graham on 1 May 1901. He later resumed his travels and studies of natural history. He travelled extensively in Europe, often on collecting expeditions or visiting zoological gardens. He made two visits to southern Africa (1905 and 1910), and explored Crete in 1908 and a second time, probably 1909 (Trevor-Battye 1913). In 1914 he travelled in India, Nepal and Sikkim in company with Henry John Elwes.
After the 1914-1918 War he resumed his writing and editing, but due to deteriorating health he moved to the Canary Islands. He died there, at Las Palmas, on the 19th or 20th of December 1922, aged 67.
He published four books of his own and a chapter in the Spitsbergen report (Trevor-Battye 1897) and over 20 papers in learned journals, mainly about ornithology. He was Editor to the Natural History section of the Victoria History of the Counties of England series (c. 1899-1902) and he edited some writings of his friend Lord Lilford (Trevor-Battye 1903). Other publications included short stories and popular articles and he edited many other articles.