The language spoken in Arzawa during the Bronze Age and early Iron Age was Luwian, a member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European family. In the oldest texts, eg. the Hittite Code, the area of Arzawa, together with Kizzuwatna, was named Luwia.
The height of the kingdom was in the 15th and 14th century BC. The Hittites were then weakened, and Arzawa was an ally of Egypt, as recorded in the Amarna letters. The Hittite kings Suppiluliuma I and Mursili II, however, finally managed to defeat Arzawa, which was split into vassal kingdoms called Mira, Seha, and Hanballa. Independent "Neo-Hittite" states re-emerged in the region after the collapse of the Hittite Empire from the 12th century.