Appenzell Innerrhoden is a canton in the north east of Switzerland. Its area is 173 km². The canton was split in 1597 for religious reasons from the former canton Appenzell, with Appenzell Ausserrhoden being the other half.
Appenzell is the capital of this canton. The constitution was established in 1872. Most of the canton is pastoral, this despite being mountainous. Cattle breeding and dairy farming are the main agricultural activities: Appenzeller cheese is widely available throughout Switzerland.
Citizens from the canton assemble every last Sunday of April for the Landsgemeinde (general assembly) in a square in Appenzell and vote on laws and elect the Governing Council. Until a 1990 decision by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, women did not have the right to vote at the cantonal level in Appenzell Innerrhoden.
It is common for cars rented in Switzerland to be registered in Appenzell Innerrhoden, and thus having license plates starting with "AI", because of the reduced tax on automobiles in this canton.