known as Antiochus the Great
Antiochus III, coin, late 3rd–early 2nd century BC; in the British Museum.
(born 242—died 187 BC
, near Susa, Iran) Seleucid
king of the Syrian empire (223–187 BC
). After quelling a rebellion by Achaeus, his governor in Asia Minor (213), Antiochus marched east to India (212–205). He forged a peaceful alliance with Armenia and forcible ones with Parthia and Bactria, stilling resistance to his campaign. After the death of Ptolemy IV, Antiochus and Philip V
of Macedonia divided most of his empire, Antiochus taking the southern and eastern lands, including Palestine (circa
202). He then marched against Egypt, concluding a peace in 195, through which he acquired southern Syria and Ptolemy's territories in Asia Minor. Rome grew angry with Antiochus after he admitted Hannibal
of Carthage to his court; when Antiochus took a force to defend the Aetolians against Rome, Rome struck against him, eventually defeating him at Magnesia (189). He gave up lands in Europe and western Asia Minor but kept Syria, Mesopotamia, and western Iran. He was murdered while exacting much-needed tribute near Susa.
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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.