(Charles Louis) Ambroise Thomas
(Metz August 5
, February 12
) was a French opera composer
, best-known for his operas Mignon
(1866) and Hamlet
(1868, after Shakespeare
) and as Director of the Conservatoire de Paris
Early life and studies
His parents were music teachers and prepared him to become a musician. By age 10 he was already an excellent pianist and violinist. In 1828, he entered the Paris Conservatoire
, where he studied with Jean-François Le Sueur
while at the same time continuing his piano studies privately with the famous virtuoso pianist Frédéric Kalkbrenner
. In 1832, his cantata Hermann et Ketty
won the Conservatory's prestigious composition prize, the Grand Prix de Rome
, which allowed him to travel to and study in that city for three years. He took with him a love for Mozart and Beethoven but once in Rome became an ardent admirer of the Italian cantilena and melodic tradition. It was during his Italian sojourn that he wrote all of his chamber music--a piano trio, a string quintet and a string quartet, all of which reflect his new style of writing.
His first opera, La Double Echelle (1837), was produced at the Opéra Comique and was a success, receiving 247 performances before it left the stage. Le Caïd (1849), his first undisputed triumph, glittered with Rossini-inspired score and achieved over 400 performances before the turn of the century. For the next quarter of a century Thomas's productivity was incessant, and most of his operatic works belonging to this period enjoyed a great, if ephemeral, popularity. They are hampered by their libretti, but a few of them are occasionally revived as historic curiosities or recorded as vehicles for bel canto singers: Le Songe d'une nuit d'été (1850; loosely adapted from Shakespeare), Psyché (1857). Some of his overtures appear on concert programs: the overture to Raymond (1851), for instance, receives the occasional revival.
To his theatrical successes, Thomas added administrative achievements. In 1856 he acquired a professorship at the Conservatoire, where he taught, among others, Massenet, one of the few French composers of the younger generation whose music interested him. He succeeded Auber as director of the Conservatoire in 1871, retaining his post until his death. Baffled by the musical unconventionalities of César Franck and certain other Conservatoire colleagues, he nevertheless was rather well liked as a man, even by those who found his output old-fashioned.
(premiered at the Opéra Comique
in 1866), Thomas achieved his first great acclaim outside, as well as within, France. Goethe
's tale had provided inspiration for a highly sentimentalized libretto; Marie Galli-Marié (1840–1905), it was said
, "had modelled her conception of the part upon the well-known picture by Ary Scheffer
was a success all over Europe, to audiences that had embraced Charles Gounod
's indirectly Goethe-inspired sentimental Faust
(1859); and in Paris Mignon
received more than a thousand performances by 1894, thereby becoming one of the most successful operas in French history
It turns up occasionally today, more often in the form of extracts for concert or in recordings than in complete stagings. One of its arias, "Connais-tu le pays",
was for generations among the most famous operatic excerpts by any composer.
Thomas turned to Shakespeare again for his Hamlet (Paris Opera, 1868), with a libretto by the seasoned team of Jules Barbier and Michel Carré. This opera has a strong, dramatic libretto although it closes with a traditional (and somewhat surprising) happy ending. It enjoyed a long vogue, and like Mignon it continues to have a certain following.
His last opera, Françoise de Rimini (Paris Opéra, 1882) based on a passage from Dante's Inferno, failed to stay in the repertoire. Seven years later La Tempête, a ballet (and yet another treatment of a Shakespeare play), was produced at the Opéra, again with very little effect.
List of works and premieres
- (Each composition is an opéra comique, unless noted otherwise)
- La double échelle, libretto by Eugène de Planard, August 23, 1837
- Le perruquier de la régence, March 30, 1838
- La gipsy, second act ballet at the Opéra de Paris, 1839
- Le panier fleuri, May 6, 1839
- Carline, 24 February 1840
- Le comte de Carmagnola, opera in two acts, libretto by Eugène Scribe, The first performance was at the Opéra de Paris on April 19, 1841
- Le guerillero, opera in 2 acts, libretto by T. Anne, June 22, 1842
- Angélique et Médor, May 10, 1843
- Mina, ou Le ménage à trois, October 10, 1843
- Le caïd, libretto by T.M.F. Savage, January 3,1849
- Le songe d'une nuit d'été, April 20, 1850
- Raymond, ou Le secret de la reine, June 5, 1851
- La Tonelli, March 30, 1853
- La cour de Célimène, April 11, 1855
- Psyché, January 26, 1857
- Le carnaval de Venise, December 9, 1857
- Gille et Gillotin, opera in one act, April 22, 1874 (Revision of Gillotin et son père, 1859, unperformed.)
- Le roman d'Elvire, February 4, 1860
- Mignon, opera in three acts, libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré. The first performance was at the Opéra Comique, Paris, on November 17, 1866.
- Hamlet, opera in five acts, libretto by Michel Carré and Jules Barbier, The first performance was at the Opéra de Paris on March 9, 1868
- Françoise de Rimini, opera in five acts, libretto by Michel Carré and Jules Barbier, The first performance was at the Opéra de Paris on April 14, 1882
- La tempête, ballet, ("The Tempest", based on Shakespeare), 1889
- Composers: (Charles Louis) Ambroise Thomas
- Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911: "C.L.A. Thomas" An admiring review, reflecting popular musical taste in 1911.
- Some of the material in the above article appears on the website of Edition Silvertrust but permission to copy, distribute and alter has been given to Wikipedia under the terms of the GNU License in accordance with the GDFL.
- Georges Masson, 1996. Ambroise Thomas (Metz: Editions Serpentoise)