Altona (ˈaltona) is the westernmost urban borough (Bezirk) of the German city state of Hamburg, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864 Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy. Altona was a independent city until 1937. In 2006 the population was 243,972.
Because of the severe restrictions on the number of Jews allowed to live in Hamburg (with the exception of the period of 1811-15,) until 1864, a major Jewish community developed in Altona. Members did business both in Hamburg and in Altona itself. All that remains is the Jewish cemetery, but in the seventeenth , eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries it was a major center of Jewish life and scholarship.
The wars between Denmark and the Kingdom of Prussia like the First Schleswig War (1848–1851) and the Second War of Schleswig (Feb 1864 - Oct 1864) followed by the Gastein Convention (1864) led to Denmark's cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Prussian and Austrian administration, respectively. In 1867 Altona became part of the Kingdom of Prussia.
In 1871 Altona and the near city Hamburg were hit by the cholera with a minimum of 16 casualties.
Alter the first world war in the Weimar Republic the city of Altona was disturbed by major worker strikes and street disorders. The inflation in Germany was a major problem. In 1923 Max Brauer the mayor of Altona, ordered to give coins for the gas meters as part of the salary for city personnel, because these coins were independent to the inflation. The most notable event at this time is the bloody Sunday of Altona (German: Altonaer Blutsonntag) on July 7, 1932 were several persons were shot by the police force during a demonstration of Nazi groups. After police raids and a special court, on August 1, 1933 among others Bruno Tesch was found guilty and beheaded.
On February 1, 2007 the Ortsämter (Precincts) in Hamburg were dissolved. In Altona were the precincts Blankenese, Lurup and Osdorf with local offices. Ob March 1, 2008 the neighborhood Schanzenviertel in the boroughs Altona, Eimsbüttel and Hamburg-Mitte became the quarter Sternschanze in the borough Altona.
There were 37 elementary schools and 30 secondary schools in Altona and 635 physicians in private practice and 67 pharmacies.
The Bundesautobahn 7 leads through Altona borough.
According to the Department of Motor Vehicles (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt), in Altona were 87,131 private cars registered ((359 cars/1000 people).