Alnus incana

Alnus incana (Grey or Speckled Alder) is a species of alder with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. It is a small to medium size tree 15-20 m tall with smooth grey bark even in old age, its life span being a maximum of 60-100 years. The leaves are matt green, ovoid, 5-11 cm long and 4-8 cm broad. The flowers are catkins, appearing early in spring before the leaves emerge, the male catkins pendulous and 5-10 cm long, the female catkins 1.5 cm long and 1 cm broad when mature in late autumn. The seeds are small, 1-2 mm long, and light brown with a narrow encircling wing. The Grey Alder has a shallow root system, and is marked not only by vigorous production of stump suckers, but also by root suckers, especially in the northern parts of its range.

Alnus incana is a light-demanding, fast-growing tree that grows well on poorer soils. In central Europe, it is a colonist of alluvial land alongside mountain brooks and streams, occurring at elevations up to 1500 metres. However, it does not require moist soil, and will also colonize screes and shallow stony slopes. In the northern part of its range, it is a common tree species at sea level in forests, abandoned fields and on lakeshores. It is sometimes used for afforestation on non-fertile soils which it enriches by means of nitrogen fixing bacteria in its root nodules. The wood resembles that of the black alder, but is somewhat paler and of little value.

There are four to six subspecies, some treated as separate species by some authors:

  • Alnus incana subsp. incana (Grey Alder). Northern Europe and northwestern Asia, and central and southern Europe in mountains, mainly in the regions of the Alps, Carpathians and the Caucasus.
  • Alnus incana subsp. hirsuta (Spach) Á. & D.Löve (=A. hirsuta Spach; Manchurian Alder). Northeastern Asia, and central Asia in mountains.
  • Alnus incana subsp. kolaensis (N.I.Orlova) Á. & D.Löve. Subarctic northeast Europe.
  • Alnus incana subsp. oblongifolia (=A. oblongifolia; Arizona Alder). Southwestern North America.
  • Alnus incana subsp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T.Clausen (=A. rugosa Du Roi; Speckled Alder). Northeastern North America.
  • Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung (=A. tenuifolia Nutt.; Thinleaf Alder or Mountain Alder). Northwestern North America and Alaska.

Several species of Lepidoptera use Grey Alder as a food plant for their caterpillars. See List of Lepidoptera that feed on alders.


Alnus incana subsp. incana

Alnus incana subsp. rugosa

Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia


Search another word or see Alnus_incanaon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2015, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature