He is buried next to his father in a family mauseleum located in the Jamé Mosque of Isfahan.
Born in Isfahan in 1616, his father, Molla Mohammad Taqi Majlesi (Majlesi-ye Awwal--Majlesi the First, b. 1594 a.d.-d. 1659 a.d.), was a cleric of Islamic jurisprudence. The genealogy of his family is traced back to Abu Noaym Ahámad b. Abdallah Esfahani (d. 1038 a.d.), the author, inter alia, of a History of Isfahan, entitled Zekr-e akhbar-e Esfahan.
By the age of 14, he gained certification of "riwāyat" from Mulla Sadra to teach. He is said to have completed studies under 21 masters (ustadh). He is reported to have trained 181 students to become masters himself.
According to scholar Moojan Momem, Majlisi's era marked a breaking point, as he successfully undercut the influence of Sufism and philosophic rationalism in Shiism. "Up to the time of Majlisi, Shiism and Sufism were closely linked and indeed Sufism had been a vehicle for pro-Shii sentiment among the Sunnis. Even the most eminent members of the Shii ulama in the preceding centuries had come under the influence of Sufiism." After the death of Majlisi, "this process continued among the succeeding generations of ulama" so that Sufism became "divorced from Shiism and ceased to influence the main stream of Shii development. Philosophy was also down-graded and ceased to be an important part of studies at the religious colleges."
Majlisi was not successful in suppressing Sunnism. Though he "waged a relentless campaign of persecution wherever he found any Sunnis," the pockets of Sunnism in Iran he targeted remained.
Majlesi "fervently upheld the concepts of `enjoining the good` and `prohibiting evil`", and in so doing endeavoured to provide fatwa (judgements) for "all the of the hypothetical situations a true believer could or might face. In one "exposition of virtues of proper behavior" he gave directions on everything from how to "wear clothes to sexual intercourse and association with females, clipping fingernails, sleeping, waking, urination and defecation, enemas, sneezing, entering and leaving a domicile, and treatments and cures for many illnesses and diseases.
More controversially, Majlesi defined "science" very narrowly as "knowledge of the clear, secure ayat [verses of the Quran]; of the religious duties and obligations which God has fixed in his Justice; and of the Prophetic Traditions (Hadith), which are valid until the day of Resurrection." Beyond this, he warned, the seeking of knowledge is "a waste of one's life," and worse would "generally lead to apostasy and heresy, in which case the likelihood of salvation is remote.. He opposed the school of mystical philosophy developed by Mir Damad and Mulla Sadra, who argued that the Quran was always open to reinterpretation, and valued insights that came from intuition and ecstasy rather than reason.
Majilis is also controversial for his close relationship with Indian Mughal ruler Aurangzeb Alamgir who was known commonly for his anti-Shia inclinations. Aurangzeb is said to have referred to Majlisi as "the real leader of all true Muslims of Persia". Majlisi visited India on nine occasions between 1660 and 1695 and was awarded the respect of a government emissary thereby offending the Shah of Iran. The Shah made a futile effort of winning over Majlisi against Aurangzeb by giving him a high level post in his court but failed to win his support for his wars against the later.