The character has been said to be based on Alice Liddell, a child friend of Dodgson's. Dodgson said several times that his 'little heroine' was not based on any real child, but was entirely fictional. Alice is portrayed as a quaintly logical girl, sometimes even pedantic, especially with Humpty Dumpty in the second book. According to Through the Looking-Glass, she is seven-and-a-half years old but seems to conduct herself like a somewhat older child. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland takes place on May 4th, Alice Liddell's birthday. Through the Looking-Glass takes place on November 4th, her half-birthday (and Alice states that she is "seven and a half exactly.")
Alice is popularly depicted wearing a pale blue knee-length dress with a white pinafore overtop, although the dress originally was yellow in The Nursery "Alice", the first coloured version of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. In the illustrations for Through the Looking-Glass her hair is held back with a wide ribbon, and in honour of Alice, such hairbows are sometimes called Alice bands, particularly in the UK.
As Alice was first drawn in black and white her colors would vary from artist to artist; it was Disney who made blue the most popular color for her dress and blonde for her hair. However, Alice has been coloured by Tenniel in a blue dress, with white stripes at the bottom. Her pinafore is outlined in red.
Besides the books, Alice has appeared in many other works, perhaps the most famous one being the Disney animated film version. There have been many other films, spin-off novels, comic book adaptations, and other forms of the story. Alice is also featured in the Playstation 2 game Kingdom Hearts, in the Wonderland level. In the game, Alice has been found guilty by the Queen of Hearts, and is put on trial. It is later found out that she is one of the seven 'Princesses of Hearts'.
This version of Alice appears as a guest in House of Mouse.
In the 2000 PC game, American McGee's Alice, Alice is portrayed as an older, dark-brown haired girl with emerald green eyes. In the game, Alice is a tortured young woman, who at a young age was orphaned when her parents were burned alive in an accidental fire caused by her cat Dinah. Afterwards, she falls into a catatonic state, and condemned to Rutledge's Asylum for treatment. There she remains for many years, faced with her own survivor's guilt, and the mistreatment of patients in the mental hospitals of the time. Then, the Cheshire Cat arrives in her cell, and tells her she must return to Wonderland as their savior. By doing so, she not only saves Wonderland, but her own sanity. American McGee's Alice has Susie Brann voicing the titular character.
In Frank Beddor's novel, The Looking-Glass Wars, an adaptation of the Alice books, Alice is re-imagined as Alyss Heart, the rightful heir to the throne of Wonderland and a warrior princess with magical powers of her own. The prefice of the story is that Alyss fled to Earth where she met Lewis Carrol and told him her story. He turned it into a nonsensical fairytale in which he even misspelled her name (rendering it, Alice).
The Czech surrealist Jan Švankmajer retold the story in a very dark 1988 film titled simply Alice. Woody Allen also called a film Alice, and while it was not a direct adaptation it did follow a woman who has a series of surreal adventures. Alice also appears as a college-attending teenager alongside Wendy Darling, Dorothy Gale and C. S. Lewis' Susan Pevensie (The Chronicles of Narnia) in Chicago of 2005 and 2006, in the comic book series, The Oz/Wonderland Chronicles.
Alice is voiced by Kathryn Beaumont in all English Disney productions but the Disney Channel original show, Adventures in Wonderland, where she was played by Elisabeth Harnois. In the Tokyo Disneyland DreamLights version of the Main Street Electrical Parade, Alice is voiced by Kat Cressida. Kristýna Kohoutová portrayed her in Svankmajer's Alice (her English dub was done by Camilla Power). In the Japanese version of Kingdom Hearts, she was voiced by Mika Doi.
Recently Alice has been portrayed by Beyonce Knowles for Disney's theme park campaign.
In the anime of CardCaptor Sakura Sakura Kinomoto plays the part of Alice, while her older brother acts as the Mad Hatter, her classmate Syaoran Li is doubled to be both Tweedledee and Tweedledum and various other characters appear throughout the episode.
In the anime of Ouran High School Host Club Haruhi Fujioka plays the part of Alice in the episode "Haruhi In Wonderland". However, in chapter 15 of the manga, various male characters are forced into the role of Alice instead.