[al-fred, -frid]
Jarry, Alfred, 1873-1907, French author. He was well known in Paris for his eccentric and dissolute behavior and for his insistence on the superiority of hallucinations over rational intelligence. His most famous work is the satirical farce Ubu Roi [Ubu the king] (1896, tr. 1961), with a repulsive and cowardly hero based on one of his old schoolteachers. He also wrote surrealistic verse stories, which, although witty, are also blasphemous and scatological. They include Les Minutes de sable mémorial [the moments of a monument in sand] (1894), César-Antéchrist [Caesar-Antichrist] (1895, tr. 1972), L'Amour en visites [love on visits] (1898), L'Amour absolu [absolute love] (1899), and Le Surmale (1902), as well as another play, Ubu enchaǐné [Ubu in chains] (1902).

See his Ubu Plays (tr. 1969); study by K. Beaumont (1985).

Döblin, Alfred, 1878-1957, German novelist and physician. His experiences as a psychiatrist in the workers' district of Berlin served as the basis for his experimental novel Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929, tr. 1931), in which he applied the techniques of James Joyce's Ulysses to his story of the life of a Berlin worker. Other novels include Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lun [the three leaps of Wang-lun] (1915) and Pardon wird nicht gegeben (1935, tr. Men without Mercy, 1937). Döblin left Germany in 1933, lived in France and the United States, and returned to Germany after World War II.
Windischgrätz or Windisch-Grätz, Alfred, Fürst zu, 1787-1862, Austrian field marshal. He was military governor of Bohemia when the revolutions of 1848 broke out in the Hapsburg empire. Given command in Vienna, he crushed the insurrection there, but because of the pressure of public opinion he was sent back to Bohemia. Meanwhile Prague had fallen to the revolutionists, and Windischgrätz's wife and eldest son had been killed in the insurrection. Windischgrätz recaptured (June, 1848) Prague after bombarding it and set up a military dictatorship over Bohemia. Vienna, where the revolutionists had again taken over, was also bombarded into submission (Oct., 1848) by Windischgrätz. With Felix zu Schwarzenberg, he engineered the abdication (Dec. 2, 1848) of Austrian Emperor Ferdinand in favor of Francis Joseph. Windischgrätz was removed from command in 1849 when his campaign against the Hungarian revolutionists was checked at Godollo. He later held various government posts.
Newton, Alfred, 1829-1907, English zoologist, b. Geneva. He studied (1854-65) ornithology in Lapland, Iceland, the West Indies, and North America and in 1866 became the first professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Cambridge. In 1900 he received the Royal Medal of the Royal Society and the Gold Medal of the Linnaean Society. His writings include Zoology of Ancient Europe (1862) and Dictionary of Birds (1893-96). Newton edited (1865-70) the review Ibis.
Pleasonton, Alfred, 1824-97, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Washington, D.C. He served in the Mexican War and in the Indian wars on the frontier. In the Civil War, he distinguished himself in the Peninsular campaign (1862) and was made brigadier general of volunteers. He fought at Antietam and Fredericksburg, and his stand against Stonewall Jackson at Chancellorsville averted a total Union defeat. He commanded the Union cavalry at Brandy Station and in the ensuing Gettysburg campaign, as well as later engagements. Transferred to Missouri, Pleasonton defeated Gen. Sterling Price at Westport and Marais des Cygnes (1864), ending the last Confederate threat in the West.
Ollivant, Alfred, 1874-1927, English novelist. He wrote the classic dog story Bob, Son of Battle (1898), published in England as Owd Bob. Other works include The Gentleman (1908), The Royal Road (1912), Boy Woodburn (1917), and Tomorrow (1927).
Eisenstaedt, Alfred, 1898-1995, American photographer, b. Dirschau, Germany (now Tczew, Poland). Widely considered the father of photojournalism, he began creating photo essays in Berlin during the 1920s and early 1930s. He emigrated to the United States in 1935 and joined (1936) the original photography staff at Life magazine. Soon Eisenstaedt came to epitomize the magazine's style with his topically important and beautifully composed 35mm photographs and his candid portraits of the great and the anonymous. Working for Life until its 1972 demise as a weekly, Eisenstaedt traveled throughout the world, becoming internationally known for his photographic series (e.g., Japan (1945-46)); he continued working into the 1990s. Probably his most famous photograph is of the joyous Times Square kiss of a sailor and a nurse on V-J day. His many books include Witness to Our Time (1966), Photojournalism (1971), and Germany (1981).

See his autobiographical The Eye of Eisenstaedt (1969), Eisenstaedt on Eisenstaedt: A Self Portrait (1985), and Remembrances (1990).

Hettner, Alfred, 1859-1942, German geographer and teacher; a founder of modern German geography. His methodology and his materialistic philosophy, grounded in the work of Immanuel Kant, have had a great influence on Russian and Soviet geographers. He founded (1895) the journal Geographisches Zeitschrift and published Die Geographie: ihre Geschichte, ihre Wesen und ihre Methoden (1927).
Gusenbauer, Alfred, 1960-, Austrian politician, grad. Univ. of Vienna (Ph.D. 1987). Active in the Social Democratic party from a young age, he was executive secretary (1981-1990) for Youth of the Social Democratic party and Austrian chairman (1984-90) of the Socialist Youth before first winning election to the Austrian parliament in 1991. In 2000 he became party leader of the Social Democrats, and led them in 2006 to win a plurality of seats in parliament. Forming a "grand coalition" with the conservative People's party out of necessity, Gusenbauer served chancellor of Austria (2007-8).
Alfred, 849-99, king of Wessex (871-99), sometimes called Alfred the Great, b. Wantage, Berkshire.

Early Life

The youngest son of King Æthelwulf, he was sent in 853 to Rome, where the pope gave him the title of Roman consul. He returned to Rome with his father in 855. His adolescence was marked by ill health and deep religious devotion, both of which persisted for the rest of his life.

Little is known of him during the reigns of his older brothers Æthelbald and Æthelbert, but when Æthelred took the throne (865), Alfred became his secundarius (viceroy) and aided his brother in subsequent battles against the Danes, who then threatened to overrun all England. When the Danes began their assault on Wessex in 870, Æthelred and Alfred resisted with varying results: they won a victory at Ashdown, Berkshire; they were defeated at Basing; and they had several indecisive engagements.


Early Wars with the Danes

Upon Æthelred's death after Easter in 871, Alfred became king of the West Saxons and overlord of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Essex. Faced by an enemy too powerful to defeat decisively, Alfred cleared the Danes from Wessex by a heavy payment of tribute (see Danegeld) in 871. Alfred used the five-year respite that followed to begin building up a fleet. In 876 and 877 the Danes returned to ravage for several months and finally, halted by Alfred's army, swore to leave Wessex forever. However, in a surprise invasion early in 878 they crushed Alfred's forces, and he fled to Athelney in the fens of Somerset, where he organized a series of harassing raids on the enemy. The famous legend in which, unrecognized, he is scolded by a peasant woman for letting her cakes burn probably derives from this period of his life.

In May, 878, Alfred rallied his army and won a complete victory over the Danes at Edington. He then dictated the Peace of Chippenham (or Wedmore) by which Guthrum, the Danish leader, accepted Christian baptism and probably agreed to separate England into English and Danish spheres of influence. The Danes moved into East Anglia and E Mercia, and Alfred established his overlordship in W Mercia. Alfred captured (886) London and concluded another treaty with Guthrum that marked off the Danelaw E and N of the Thames, Lea, and Ouse rivers, and Watling Street, leaving the south and west of England to Alfred.

Reforms and Achievements

Security gave Alfred the chance to institute numerous reforms within his kingdom. Against further probable attacks by the Danes, he reorganized the militia, or fyrd, around numerous garrisoned forts throughout Wessex. Drawing from the old codes of Æthelbert of Kent, Ine of Wessex, and Offa of Mercia, he issued his own code of laws, which contained measures for a stronger centralized monarchy. He reformed the administration of justice and energetically participated in it, and he reorganized the finances of his court. He came eventually to be considered the overlord of all England, although this title was not realized in concrete political administration.

Alfred's greatest achievements, however, were the revival of learning and the establishment of Old English literary prose. He gathered together a group of eminent scholars, including the Welshman Asser. They strengthened the church by reviving learning among the clergy and organized a court school like that of Charlemagne, in which not only youths and clerics but also mature nobles were taught.

Alfred himself between 887 and 892 learned Latin and translated several Latin works into English—Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care, Orosius's universal history, Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy, and St. Augustine's Soliloquies. A translation of Bede's Ecclesiastical History is also commonly ascribed to him, but there is some doubt since it differs markedly in style from the others. Alfred liberally interpolated his own thoughts into his writings, and the Orosius is particularly interesting for the addition of accounts of voyages made by the Norse explorers Ohthere and Wulfstan. Although he probably was not directly responsible for the compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, his patronage of learning undoubtedly encouraged it.

Renewed Danish Invasions

All these pursuits were interrupted, but not ended, by new Danish invasions between 892 and 896. The struggle was severe because Alfred's military reforms had not been completed and because the invading forces were joined by settlers from the Danelaw. He received strong support from his son Edward the Elder, his daughter Æthelflæd, and her husband, Æthelred of Mercia, and in the critical year of 893 the great Danish fort at Benfleet was successfully stormed. The one Danish attempt to penetrate deeply into Wessex was halted by Edward the Elder. In 896 the Danes slowly dispersed to the Danelaw or overseas, and Alfred's new long ships fought with varying success against pirate raids on the south coast. Alfred's career was later embroidered by many heroic legends, but history alone justifies calling him Alfred the Great.


See J. A. Giles, ed., The Whole Works of King Alfred the Great (1858, repr. 1969); biographies by P. J. Helm (1963) and H. R. Loyn (1967); F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (3d ed. 1971).

Adler, Alfred, 1870-1937, Austrian psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. Although one of Sigmund Freud's earlier associates, he rejected the Freudian emphasis upon sex as the root of neurosis. Adler broke with Freud in 1911, maintaining that feelings of helplessness during childhood can lead to an inferiority complex. Adler's theory focused on social forces, and his therapy, while still concerned with the analysis of early childhood, was also interested in overcoming the inferiority complex through positive social interaction. After 1932, he lectured and practiced in the United States. His books include The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology (1927, repr. 1973) and Understanding Human Nature (1927, repr. 1978).

See studies by J. Rattner (tr. 1983) and P. Stephansky (1983).

Pellan, Alfred, 1906-88, Canadian painter, b. Quebec. Pellan sold his painting Corner of Old Quebec to the National Gallery, Ottawa, when he was 16. He lived in Paris from 1926 until 1940, when he returned to Canada. Influenced by cubism and surrealism, Pellan became in turn a guiding force for younger Canadian artists when his work was exhibited in Montreal in 1940. He painted murals for many art galleries (e.g., Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1968) and public buildings, and his work was frequently exhibited internationally.

See study by D. W. Buchanan and P. Gladu (1960).

Sisley, Alfred, 1839-99, French impressionist landscape painter, b. Paris, of English parents. He studied under Corot, Gleyre, and Courbet and was (1873) a founding member of the Impressionist group. After 1871, Sisley lived modestly at Moret-sur-Loing and painted subtly shimmering small-town landscapes that reveal a wistful, lyrical sensibility. Influenced by his friends Renoir and Monet in his selection of colors, Sisley was less daring than Monet in his use of the "rainbow palette" and closer to the Barbizon School tradition. He is well represented in many museums, e.g., the Art Institute of Chicago, which owns Street in Moret and Sand Heaps.
Noyes, Alfred, 1880-1958, English poet, best known for his poems "The Highwayman" and "The Barrel-Organ." His first volume of verse, Loom of Years, appeared in 1902. It was followed by such poems as the epic Drake (1908) and the colorful Tales of the Mermaid Tavern (1913). From 1914 to 1923, Noyes was professor of English literature at Princeton. In 1925, Noyes converted to Roman Catholicism; The Unknown God (1934) is an account of his conversion. His later writings include The Torch Bearers (1922-30), a trilogy in verse on man's scientific accomplishments; The Sun Cure (1929), a novel; and a biography of Voltaire (1938). His collected poems were published in 1950. Noyes was a literary conservative who adhered to traditional models in the structure and substance of his poetry. His poems, highly colored and romantic, are often marred by sentimentality.

See his autobiography, Two Worlds for Memory (1953).

Tarski, Alfred, 1902-, Polish-American mathematician and philosopher, Ph.D. Univ. of Warsaw, 1924. He lectured at Warsaw until 1939, emigrated to the United States, and then taught at the Univ. of California, Berkeley (1942-68). Tarski made extensive, basic contributions to the field of metamathematics, a branch of mathematical logic. His most important contribution to logic is the semantic method, a method that allows a more exacting study of formal scientific languages. His work is characterized by a basic acceptance and free use of the assumptions of set theory. For this reason he is regarded by some as a nominalist. His publications include A Decision Method for Elementary Algebra and Geometry (1948, rev. ed. 1957) and Undecidable Theories (with others, 1953; repr. 1968).
Schlieffen, Alfred, Graf von, 1833-1913, German field marshal and strategist. In the tradition of the Prussian officer corps, Schlieffen was a professional soldier who considered political questions beyond his responsibility. As chief of the German general staff from 1891 through 1905 he developed the famous Schlieffen plan. According to the plan, Germany could solve the problem of war on two fronts by first defeating France in a lightning campaign and then throwing its full weight against Russia. The plan called for a flanking movement by an overwhelmingly strong right (i.e., northern) wing, which was to advance through Belgium and Holland and, in an enveloping move, compel the bulk of the French forces either to fight with their backs to the frontier fortresses or to flee into Switzerland. Much weaker contingents were to be used to hold back the French in the south and the Russians in the east. The plan (which disregarded Belgian and Dutch neutrality) demanded boldness for its execution. When World War I broke out in 1914 the Schlieffen plan was employed in a modified form, but a number of factors—including Russian military strength, German lack of mobility, effective French delaying action, and the reluctance of Schlieffen's successor, H. J. L. von Moltke, to weaken his eastern front—led to its failure. In World War II, unhampered by a Russian threat in the east and possessing highly mobile forces, the German command successfully employed (May-June, 1940) a variation of the Schlieffen plan to defeat France.

See G. Ritter, The Schlieffen Plan (1956; tr. 1958, repr. 1968).

Schnittke, Alfred, 1924-98, Russian composer. He studied music in Vienna (1946-48) and at the Moscow Conservatory (1953-58), where he later (1962-72) taught instrumentation. Thereafter, he earned a living mainly by composing more than 60 film scores, which he wrote in a traditional style acceptible to Soviet authorities. However, his signature avant-garde pieces are far from traditional, incorporating a wide variety of styles, from classical harmonics to serial dissonances, and including quotations and references to other works—all frequently within the same composition. Schnittke was little known in the West until the 1980s, when his music was championed by a number of expatriate Russian performers. Extremely prolific, he wrote nine symphonies, six concerti grossi, four violin and two cello concerti, four string quartets, six ballet scores, and numerous orchestral, vocal, choral, chamber, and solo pieces. Among his better-known works are the Concerto Grosso No. 1 (1977) and the operas composed late in his career: Life with an Idiot (1992), Historia von D. Johann Fausten (1993), and Gesualdo (1994).

See A. Ivashkin, ed., A Schnittke Reader (2002); biography by A. Ivashkin (1996).

Beit, Alfred, 1853-1906, South African financier, b. Hamburg. He went to South Africa in 1875, grew rich from the development of diamond mines, and was a colleague and lieutenant of Cecil Rhodes in Rhodesia. A philanthropist, he founded a chair for colonial history at the Univ. of Oxford and made many gifts for educational purposes in London, Hamburg, and South Africa.
Rosenberg, Alfred, 1893-1946, German Nazi leader. He was born in Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia), and studied architecture in Riga, and later in Moscow. Returning to Reval, he became active as a political ideologist until he fled (1919) to Germany to escape arrest for counterrevolutionary speeches. There he joined the National Socialist party and became the editor of the party organ, Völkischer Beobachter. The author of an anti-Christian, anti-Semitic, and neopagan book, Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts [the myth of the 20th cent.] (1930), he supplied Adolf Hitler with the spurious philosophical and scientific basis for his racist doctrine (see National Socialism). Rosenberg was made (1933) foreign affairs secretary of the party and distinguished himself as the foremost anti-Bolshevik among its leaders. In 1941 he was appointed minister for the occupied Eastern territories. Convicted as a war criminal at the Nuremberg trials, he was executed.

See his memoirs (tr. 1949) and his Selected Writings, ed. by R. Pois (1970); R. Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology (1972).

Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913, English author, b. Leeds. Originally trained for a legal career, he eventually turned to writing and politics. From 1883-95 he edited the National Review. Although in 1896 he succeeded Tennyson as poet laureate, his poetry is negligible, and he was the butt of many critics who attacked his snobbishness, tastelessness, and lack of poetic talent. His best work is A Garden That I Love (1894, 1907), a miscellany in diary form.

See his autobiography (1911, repr. 1973); study by N. B. Crowell (1953).

Lunt, Alfred, 1893-1977, b. Milwaukee, and Lynn Fontanne, 1887?-1983, b. Essex, England, American acting couple. Lunt made his debut in Boston (1913), toured in vaudeville, and won fame in Booth Tarkington's Clarence in 1919. Fontanne made her London debut in 1905 and her first appearance in New York City in 1910. The couple were married in 1922 and appeared together (1924-29) in many Theatre Guild productions, including The Guardsman and Pygmalion. The Lunts first appeared in London in Caprice in 1929. They excelled especially in sophisticated modern comedy, such as Noël Coward's Design for Living (1933), Robert Sherwood's Idiot's Delight (1936), and Terence Rattigan's Love in Idleness (1944-49). The Lunts also played in weightier dramas, including There Shall Be No Night (1940) and The Visit (1957-60), their last joint appearance, and performed together in films and television plays.

See biographies by J. Brown (1986) and M. Peters (2003).

Rethel, Alfred, 1816-59, German historical painter and draftsman. He gained a reputation in Frankfurt, where he painted Daniel in the Lions' Den and Guardian Angel of Emperor Maximilian. His major work was half of a fresco cycle (1847-52) for the town hall of Aachen, depicting scenes from the life of Charlemagne. Rethel also made a series of remarkable drawings for wood engravings for Another Dance of Death (1849), in which he depicted events from the Revolution of 1848.
Hugenberg, Alfred, 1865-1951, German financier and politician. He was president of the directorate of the Krupp firm (1909-18), entered the Reichstag in 1919, and was chairman (1928-33) of the conservative German Nationalist party. Control of the Hugenberg combine, a media and finance conglomerate, enabled him to mount a powerful propaganda campaign against Communists, socialists, and the Versailles Treaty. He was a major financial backer of the Nazis, hoping to control them, and a member of Hitler's first cabinet (1933), but he resigned after six months. His party was dissolved, and his combine gradually absorbed by the Nazi state.
Deakin, Alfred, 1856-1919, Australian political leader. He held office in various ministries and aided in the fight for federation of the Australian states. He accomplished a great deal in social legislation, irrigation, defense, and preferential tariffs. At first attorney general of Australia (1901), he later was prime minister in three different fusion governments (1903-4, 1905-8, 1909-10).
Deller, Alfred, 1912-79, English countertenor. He began his career as a chorister in his parish church. From 1940-47 he was a lay clerk at Canterbury Cathedral, and in 1947 he was appointed to the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Deller's unusual voice was particularly suited to Renaissance music and to the music of Handel and Purcell. In 1948 he formed the Deller Consort, which presented authentic performances of medieval, Renaissance, and baroque music; the consort made numerous recordings and performed all over the world. Deller's son, Mark Deller, is also a countertenor, who often performed with his father.
Binet, Alfred, 1857-1911, French psychologist. From 1894 he was director of the psychology laboratory at the Sorbonne. He is known for his research and innovation in testing human intelligence. With Théodore Simon he devised (1905-11) a series of tests that, with revisions, came into wide use in schools, industries, and the army. The Stanford, the Herring, and the Kuhlmann are important revisions. Binet and Simon wrote Les Enfants anormaux (1907, tr. Mentally Defective Children, 1914). Most of his writings were published in Année psychologique, a journal that he founded in 1895.

See study by T. H. Wolf (1973).

Brendel, Alfred, 1931-, Austrian pianist, b. Moravia (now in the Czech Republic). He debuted publicly in 1948 and, after winning a prize at the Busoni competition in Bolzano, Italy, in 1949, embarked upon a distinguished career as a soloist, ultimately performing with most of the world's major orchestras and conductors before he retired in 2008. Brendel, who has lived in London since the early 1970s, is particularly known for his interpretations of Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn, Schubert, Brahms, and Liszt. He has been acclaimed for his profound understanding of musical architecture, for his combination of lyricism and rigor, and for the intellectual and emotional depth of his playing. He has published two collections (1976, 1990) of essays, which are combined with other writings in Alfred Brendel on Music (2001).

See Me of All People: Alfred Brendel in Conversation with Martin Meyer (2002).

Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946, American photographer, editor, and art exhibitor, b. Hoboken, N.J. The first art photographer in the United States, Stieglitz more than any other American compelled the recognition of photography as a fine art. In 1881 he went to Berlin to study engineering but soon devoted himself to photography. In 1890 he returned to the United States and for three years helped to direct the Heliochrome Engraving Company. He then edited a series of photography magazines, the American Amateur Photographer (1892-96), Camera Notes (1897-1902), and Camera Work (1902-17), the organ of the photo-secessionists, a group he led that was dedicated to the promotion of photography as a legitimate art form.

In 1905 he established the famous gallery "291" at 291 Fifth Ave., New York City, for the exhibition of photography as a fine art. Soon the gallery broadened its scope to include the works of the modern French art movement and introduced to the United States the work of Cézanne, Picasso, Braque, Brancusi, and many others. It also made known the work of such American artists as John Marin, Charles Demuth, Max Weber, and Georgia O'Keeffe whom Stieglitz married in 1924.

From 1917 to 1925 Stieglitz produced his major works: the extraordinary portraits of O'Keeffe, studies of New York, and the great cloud series through which he developed his concept of photographic "equivalents." This concept greatly influenced photographic aesthetics. He then opened the Intimate Gallery (1925-30) and An American Place (1930-46), which continued the work of "291." Through his own superb photographic work and his generous championship of others, he promoted the symbolic and spiritually significant in American art, as opposed to the merely technically proficient.


See America and Alfred Stieglitz (ed. by W. D. Frank et al., 1934); biographies by D. Bry (1965), D. Norman (1973), S. D. Lowe (1983), and R. Whelan (1995); W. I. Homer, Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession (1983); S. Greenough, Alfred Stieglitz: The Key Set (2002).

Duff Cooper, Alfred: see Cooper, Alfred Duff.
Werner, Alfred, 1866-1919, French-born Swiss chemist, Ph.D. Univ. of Zürich, 1890. Werner was a professor at the Univ. of Zürich from 1893 until his death in 1919. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1913 for his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules, which opened up new fields of research in inorganic chemistry. Werner is best known for applying principles of geometry to identifying the structure of molecular compounds, a field of study now known as coordination chemistry. His work has had applications not only in chemistry and biochemistry but also in related sciences including mineralogy and crystallography.
Kastler, Alfred, 1902-84, German-born French physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Bordeaux, 1936. Kastler was a lecturer at Clermont-Ferrand Univ. (1936-38), professor at the Univ. of Bordeaux (1938-41), professor at the École Normale Supérieure (1941-68), and director of research at the French National Center for Scientific Research (1968-72). He received the 1966 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery and development of two methods—double resonance and optical pumping—for using light to manipulate and study the energy levels of electrons in atoms. Both of these techniques were improvements on earlier methods, allowing for more detailed studies of the structure of atoms.
Kazin, Alfred, 1915-98, American critic, b. New York City, grad. College of the City of New York (B.S., 1935) and Columbia (M.A., 1938). Kazin was one of the outstanding literary critics of his time. His first book, the influential and pioneering On Native Grounds (1942), is a critical study of American prose literature from Howells to Faulkner. His later essay collections include The Inmost Leaf (1955), Contemporaries (1962), Bright Book of Life (1973), An American Procession (1984), Writing Was Everything (1995), and God & the American Writer (1997).

See his autobiographical works, A Walker in the City (1951), Starting Out in the Thirties (1965), and New York Jew (1978), as well as A Lifetime Burning in Every Moment: From the Journals of Alfred Kazin (1996); biography by R. M. Cook (2008).

Drake, Alfred, 1914-92, American singer, actor, and director, b. New York City, originally named Alfred Capurro. Drake first appeared on stage in 1935 in The Mikado. The Broadway production of Oklahoma! (1943) brought him stardom, followed by leading roles in Kiss Me Kate (1948) and Kismet (1953). In 1964 he played the king in John Gielgud's production of Hamlet, and in 1973 he appeared in the musical Gigi, both on Broadway.
Henschke, Alfred: see Klabund.
Marshall, Alfred, 1842-1924, English economist. At Cambridge, where he taught from 1885 to 1908, he exerted great influence on the development of economic thought of the time; one of his students was John Maynard Keynes. He systematized the classical economic theories and made new analyses in the same manner, thus laying the foundation of the neoclassical school of economics. He was concerned with theories of costs, value, and distribution and developed a concept of marginal utility. His Principles of Economics (1890) was for years the standard work and is still widely read. Among his other works are Industry and Trade (1919) and Money, Credit, and Commerce (1923).

See A. C. Pigou, ed., Memorials of Alfred Marshall (1925, repr. 1966). What I Remember (1947), by M. P. Marshall, his wife, has some biographical material on him. See studies by H. J. Davenport (1935, repr. 1965) and C. Kerr (1969).

Kreymborg, Alfred, 1883-1966, American poet and anthologist, b. New York City. Originally one of the imagists, he wrote poems collected in Mushrooms (1916), Manhattan Men (1929), Selected Poems (1945), and Man and Shadow (1946). He chronicled American poetry in such works as the critical history Our Singing Strength (1929, 1934) and the anthology Lyric America (1930). His puppet plays were also popular.

See his autobiography, Troubadour (1925).

Mombert, Alfred, 1872-1942, German poet. He was briefly a lawyer and public official. His works, characterized by mysticism, fantasy, and simplicity of style, include Die Glühende [aglow] (1896), Die Schöpfung [the creation] (1897), Die Blüte des Chaos [the blossoming of chaos] (1905), the trilogy Aeon (1907-11), Der Held der Erde [the hero of the earth] (1919), and Atair (1925). A Jew, Mombert was arrested by the Nazis in 1940. He fell ill in a concentration camp, was released (1941), and died in Switzerland.
Waterhouse, Alfred, 1830-1905, English architect. He won competitions for the Manchester assize court (1859) and the Manchester city hall (1868). This work placed him in the forefront of the Victorian Gothic revival. His most important work, the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, in a modified Romanesque style, was notable for its revival of the use of terra-cotta. Waterhouse also executed important buildings for Balliol College, Oxford; Pembroke College, Cambridge; Prudential Assurance Company, Holborn, London; and the City and Guilds College, South Kensington (1881).

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