Adhan (also - Athaan IPA: /ʔæðæːn/) (أَذَان) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. The root of the word is ʼḏn "to permit", and another derivative of this word is uḏun, meaning "ear."
Adhan is called out by the muezzin in the mosque, sometimes from a minaret, five times a day summoning Muslims for fard (mandatory) salah (prayers). There is a second call known as iqama that summons Muslims to line up for the beginning of the prayers.
|4x||الله اكبر||Allāhu Akbar||God is The Greatest*|
|2x||اشهد ان لا اله الا الله||Ash-hadu an lā ilāha illallāh||I bear witness that there is no deity except God|
|2x||اشهد ان محمدا رسول الله||Ash-hadu anna Muħammadan rasūlullāh||I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God|
|2x||حي على الصلاة||Hayya 'alas-salāh||Make haste towards prayer|
|2x||حي على الفلاح||Hayya 'alal-falāħ||Make haste towards welfare|
|2x||الصلاة خير من النوم||Aṣ-ṣalātu khayru min an-naūm||Prayer is better than sleep **|
|2x||الله اكبر||Allāhu akbar||God is greatest|
|1x||لا اله الا الله||Lā ilāha illallāh||There is no deity except Allah|
** The line "Prayer is better than sleep" is used only for the first prayers of the day at dawn (fajr Prayer; Salat al-fajr).
|4x||الله اكبر||Allah hu Akbar||God is the Greatest|
|2x||اشهد ان لا اله الا الله||Ash-hadu anna lā ilāha illallāh||I bear witness that there is no deity except God|
|2x||اشهد ان محمدا رسول الله||Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasūl allāh||I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God|
|2x||حي على الصلاة||Hayya 'alas-salāt||Make haste towards prayer|
|2x||حي على الفلاح||Hayya 'alal-falāh||Make haste towards welfare|
|2x||حي علی خير العمل||Hayya 'alā Khair al-'amal||Make haste towards the best thing|
|2x||الله اكبر||Allah u Akbar||God is the Greatest|
|2x||لا اله الا الله||Lā ilāha illallāh||There is no deity except Allah|
During the Friday prayer (Salat Al Jummah), there are two adhans; the first is to call the people to the mosque, the second is said before the Imam begins the khutbah (sermon). Just before the prayers start, someone amongst the praying people recites the iqama as in all prayers. The basis for this is that at the time of the Caliph Umar he ordered 2 adhans to be made, the first of which was to be made in the marketplace to inform the people that the Friday prayer was soon to begin, and the second Adhan would be the regular one held in the mosque. Not all Sunnis prefer 2 adhans as the need for warning the people of the impending time for prayer is no longer essential these days whereby the times for prayers are well known.
Other Shi'a sources state that Bilal ibn Ribah was, in fact, the first person to recite the adhan publicly out loud in front of the Muslim congregation.
|اللهم رب هذه الدعوة التامة والصلاة القائمة||Allahumma rabba hadhi-hid da'wa-tit-tamma wa-salatil qae-ma||O God, Owner of this perfect call and Owner of this prayer to be performed|
|آت محمداً الوسيلة و الفضيلة||Ati muhammadanil wasilata wal fadeela||Bestow upon Muhammad al waseelah (a station in Paradise) and al fadeelah (a rank above the rest of creation)|
|وابعثه مقاماً محموداً الذي وعدته||Wab ath-hu maqamam-mahmuda-nil ladhi wa at-ta||And raise him to the rank you have promised him|
As part of this initiative, a committee was organized in 1932, which brought together some of the leading religious scholars, Huffaz, academics and linguists of the day, including such names as Hafız Burhan, Sadettin Kaynak, and Hafız Nuri. The committee, after extensive research and deliberation, ultimately ruled that it was fully jaiz (i.e. permissible by Koranic canon) to use one's native language for all aspects of faith, and followed this decision by releasing an official Turkish version of the adhan, which was as follows;
Şüphesiz bilirim, bildiririm;
Tanrı'dan başka yoktur tapacak.
Şüphesiz bilirim, bildiririm;
Tanrı'nın elçisidir Muhammed.
Haydin namaza, haydin felaha,
Namaz uykudan hayırlıdır.
Following the conclusion of said debates, the Presidency of Religious Affairs released an official mandate on July 18 1932, announcing the decision to all the mosques across Turkey, and the practice was continued for a period of 18 years.
On July 16 1950, the practice was terminated after a new government under Adnan Menderes was sworn in, who repealed the ban on the Arabic adhan within two weeks of sitting in office, and declared Arabic as the liturgical language.