, Standard Adar Tiberian ʾĂḏār
; from Akkadian adaru
) is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the religious year on the Hebrew calendar
. It is a winter month of 29 days. In leap years, it is preceded by a 30-day intercalary month
named Adar Aleph (Aleph
being the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet), Adar Rishon (First Adar
) or Adar I and it is then itself called Adar Bet (Bet
being the second letter of the Jewish Alphabet), Adar Sheni (Second Adar
) or Adar II. Occasionally instead of Adar I and Adar II, "Adar" and "Ve'Adar" are used (Ve means 'and' thus: And Adar). Adar I and II occur during February–March on the Gregorian calendar
Based on a line in the Mishnah declaring that Purim must be celebrated in Adar II in a leap year (Megillah 1:4), Adar I is considered the "extra" month. As a result, someone born in Adar during a non leap year would celebrate his birthday in Adar II during a leap year. However, someone born during either Adar in a leap year will celebrate his birthday during Adar in a non-leap year, except that someone born on 30 Adar I will celebrate his birthday on 1 Nisan in a non-leap year because Adar in a non-leap year has only 29 days.
Holidays in Adar
13 Adar II
- Fast of Esther
– on 11 Adar when the 13th falls on Shabbat
- (Fast Day)
14 Adar II
14 Adar I
- Purim Katan
15 Adar II
- Shushan Purim
- celebration of Purim in walled cities built after the time of Joshua
Adar in Jewish history
- (1313 B C E BCE
) - Plague of Darkness
- The ninth plague to be cast upon the Egyptians for their refusal to release the Israelites from slavery was a thick darkness across the entire land so "no man saw his fellow, and no man could move from his place" (Exodus 10:23). This started on the 1st of Adar, six weeks before the Exodus.
1 Adar - (1164) - Death of the Ibn Ezra
1 Adar - (circa 1663) - Death of the Shach
3 Adar - (515 BCE) - Second Temple completed
4 Adar - (1307) - Maharam's body ransomed
4 Adar - (1796) - Death of Rabbi Leib Sarah's
7 Adar - (1393 and 1273 BCE) - Moses' birth and death
- Moses was born in Egypt on the 7th of Adar of the Hebrew year 2368 (1393 BCE) and is said to have died on his 120th birthday, Adar 7, 2488 (1273 BCE)
13 Adar - (522 BCE) - war against enemies of the Jews in Persia
- On the 13th of Adar of the Hebrew year 522 BCE, battles were fought throughout the Persian Empire between the Jews and those seeking to kill them in accordance with the decree issued by King Achashveirosh eleven months earlier. (Achashveirosh never rescinded that decree; but after the hanging of Haman on Nissan 16 of the previous year, and Queen Esther's pleading on behalf of her people, he agreed to issue a second decree authorizing the Jews to defend themselves against those seeking to kill them.) 75,000 enemies were killed on that day, and 500 in the capital, Shushan, including Haman's ten sons (Parshandata, Dalfon, Aspata, Porata, Adalia, Aridata, Parmashta, Arisai, Aridai and Vaizata), whose bodies were subsequently hanged. The Jews did not take any of the possessions of the slain as booty, though authorized to do so by the king's decree. (The Book of Esther, chapter 9).
13 Adar - (161 BCE) - Maccabee victory
14 Adar - (1393 BCE) - Moses' brit milah
- Moses was born on the 7th of Adar of the Hebrew year 2368 (1393 BCE); accordingly, Adar 14 was the 8th day of his life and the day on which he was circumcised in accordance with the divinee command to Abraham.
14 Adar - (522 BCE) - Purim victory celebrated
- The festival of Purim celebrates the salvation of the Jewish people from Haman's plot "to destroy, kill and annihilate all the Jews, young and old, infants and women, in a single day." See Timeline.
15 Adar - (522 BCE) - Purim Victory Celebrated in Shushan
15 Adar - (1st century CE) - Jerusalem Gate Day
- King Agrippa I (circa 21 CE) began construction of a gate for the wall of Jerusalem; the day used to be celebrated as a holiday.
20 Adar - (1st century BCE) - Choni the Circle Maker prays for rain
- "One year, most of Adar went by and it didn't rain. They sent for Choni the Circle Maker. He prayed and the rains didn't come. He drew a circle, stood in it and said: 'Master of The World! Your children have turned to me; I swear in Your great name that I won't move from here until You have pity on Your children.' The rains came down." (Talmud, Taanit 23a)
20 Adar - (1640) - Death of the "Bach"
23 Adar - (1312 BCE) - Mishkan assembled for the 1st time; "Seven Days of Training" begin.
- During the week of Adar 23-29, the Mishkan was erected each morning and dismantled each evening; Moses served as the High Priest and initiated Aaron and his four sons into the priesthood. Then, on the "eighth day," the 1st of Nissan, the Mishkan was "permanently" assembled (that is, put up to stand until the God-given command would come to journey on), Aaron and his sons assumed the priesthood, and the divine presence came to dwell in the Mishkan.
23 Adar - (1866) - Death of 1st Rebbe of Ger
24 Adar - (1817) - Blood Libel declared false
25 Adar - (561 BCE) - Nebuchadnezzar died
27 Adar - (561 BCE) - Death of Zedekiah
- Zedekiah was the last king of the royal house of David to reign in the Holy Land. He ascended the throne in 597 BCE, after King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia (to whom the Kingdom of Judah was then subject) exiled King Jeconiah (Zedekiah's nephew) to Babylonia . In 588 BCE Zedekiah rebelled against Babylonian rule, and Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem (in Tevet 10 of that year); in the summer of 586 BCE the walls of Jerusalem were penetrated, the city conquered, the (first) Holy Temple destroyed, and the people of Judah exiled to Babylonia. Zedekiah tried escaping through a tunnel leading out of the city, but was captured; his sons were killed in front of him, and then he was blinded. Zedekiah languished in the royal dungeon in Babylonia until Nebuchadnezzar's death in 561 BCE. Meroduch, Nebuchadnezzar's son and successor, freed him (and his nephew Jeconiah) on the 27th of Adar, but Zedikiah died that same day.
28 Adar - (2nd century) - Talmudic holiday
- Azar or Adhar (Arabic: آذار) is the name for the month of March in the Levant.