Tartaric acid is, from a winemaking perspective, the most important in wine due to the prominent role it plays in maintaining the chemical stability of the wine and its color and finally in influencing the taste of the finished wine. In most plants, this organic acid is rare but it is found in significant concentrations in grape vines. Along with malic acid, and to a lesser extent citric acid, tartaric is one of the fixed acids found in wine grapes. The concentration varies depending on grape variety and the soil content of the vineyard. Some varieties, such as Palomino, are naturally deposed to having high levels of tartaric acids while Malbec and Pinot noir generally have lower levels. During flowering, there are high levels of tartaric acid concentrated in the grape flowers and then young berries. As the vine progresses through ripening, tartaric does not get metabolized through respiration like malic acid so that they levels of tartaric acid in the grape vines remains relatively consistent throughout the ripening process.
Less than half of the tartaric acid found grape is free standing, with the majority of the concentration present as potassium acid salt. During fermentation, these tartrates bind with the lees, pulp debris and precipitated tannins and pigments. While there is some variance among grape varieties and wine regions, generally about half of the deposits are soluble in the alcoholic mixture of wine. The crystallization of these tartrates can happen at unpredictable times and in a wine bottle appear like broken glass though they are in fact harmless. Winemakers will often put the wine through cold stabilization where it is exposed temperatures below freezing to encourage the tartrates to crystallize and precipitate out of the wine.
Malic acid, along with tartaric acid, is one of the principle organic acids found in wine grapes. It is found in nearly every fruit and berry plant but its most often associated with green apples from which flavor it most readily projects in wine. Its name comes from the Latin malum meaning "apple". In the grape vine, malic acid is involved in several processes which are essential for the health and sustainability of the vine. Its chemical structure allows it to participate in enzymatic reactions that transport energy throughout the vine. The concentration of malic acids varies depending on the grape variety with some varieties, like Barbera, Carignan and Sylvaner being naturally deposed to high levels. The levels of malic acid in grape berries are at their peak just before veraison when they can be found in concentrations as high as 20 g/l. As the vine progresses through the ripening stage, malic acid is metabolized in the process of respiration and by harvest could be as low as 1 to 9 g/l. The respiratory loss of malic acid is more pronounced in warmer climates. When all the malic acid is used up in the grape it is considered "over-ripe" or senescent. Winemakers must compensate for this loss by manually adding acid at the winery in a process known as acidification.
Malic acid can be further reduced during the winemaking process through malolactic fermentation or MLF. In this process bacteria convert the stronger (lower pH) malic acid into the softer (higher pH) lactic bacteria. The bacteria behind this process can be found naturally in the winery, in cooperages which make oak wine barrels that will house a population of the bacteria or it can be manually introduced by the winemaker with a cultured specimen. For some wines, the conversion of malic into lactic acid can be beneficial, especially if the wine has excessive levels of malic. For other wines, such as Chenin blanc and Riesling, it produce off flavors in the wine (such as the buttery smell of diacetyl) that would not be appealing for that variety. In general, red wines are more often put through MLF than whites which means that there is a higher likihood of finding malic acid in white wines (though there are notable exceptions like oaked Chardonnay which is often put through MLF).
A much milder acid than tartaric and malic, lactic acid is often associated with "milky" flavors in wine and is the primary acid of yogurt and sauerkraut. It is produced during winemaking by lactic acid bacteria (known as LAB) which includes three genera-Oenococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus. These bacterium convert both sugar and malic acid into lactic acid, the later through a process known as malolactic fermentation or MLF. The process of converting malic into lactic acid can be beneficial for some wines, adding complexity and softening the harshness of malic acidity but it can generate off flavors and turbidity in others. Some strains of LAB can produce biogenic amines like histamine, tyramine and putrescine which may be a cause of red wine headaches in some wine drinkers. Winemakers wishing to control or prevent MLF can use sulfur dioxide to stun the bacteria. Racking the wine quickly off its lees will also help control the bacteria since lees are a vital food source for them. They must also be very careful of what wine barrels and winemaking equipment that the wine is exposed to because of the bacteria's ability to deeply embed themselves within wood fibers. A wine barrel that has completed one successful malolactic fermentation will almost always induce MLF in every wine that gets stored in it from then on.
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is found in young wine grapes prior to veraison but is rapidly lost throughout the ripening process. In winemaking it is used with sulfur dioxide as an anti-oxidant to prevent oxidation, often added during the bottling process for white wines. In the European Union, use of ascorbic acid as an additive is limited to 150 mg/l.
Butyric acid is a bacteria induced wine fault that can cause a wine to smell of spoiled Camembert or rancid butter.
Sorbic acid is a winemaking additive used often in sweet wines as a preservative against fungi, bacteria and yeast growth. Unlike sulfur dioxide, it does not hinder the growth of the lactic acid bacteria. In the European Union there is a limitation on the amount of sorbic acid that can be added-no more than 200 mg/l. Most humans have a detection threshold of 135 mg/l, with some having a sensitivity to detect its presence at 50 mg/l. Sorbic acid can produce off-flavors and aromas which can be described as "rancid". When lactic acid bacteria metabolizes sorbates in the wine, it creates a wine fault that is most recognizable by an aroma of crushed geranium leaves.
Succinic acid is most commonly found in wine but can also be present in trace amounts in ripened grapes. While concentration varies amount grape varieties, it is usually found in higher levels with red wine grapes. The acid is created as a by-product of the metabolization of nitrogen by yeast cells during fermentation. The combination of succinic acid with one molecule of ethanol will create the ester mono-ethyl succinate that is responsible for a mild, fruit aroma in wines.
Acidity is highest in wine grapes just before the start of veraison, which ushers in the ripening period of the annual cycle of grape vines. As the grapes ripen, their sugars level increase and there acidity decreases. Through the process of respiration, malic acid is metabolized by the grape vine. Grapes from cooler climate wine regions, generally have a higher level of acidity due to the slower ripening process which is accelerated by warmer temperatures. The levels of acidity still present in the grape is an important consideration for winemakers in deciding when to begin harvest. For wines, like Champagne and other sparklers, having high levels of acidity is even more vital to the winemaking process and so grapes are often picked under-ripe and at higher acid levels.
In the winemaking process, acids aid in enhancing the effectiveness of sulfur dioxide to protect the wines from spoilage and can also protect the wine from bacteria due to the inability of most bacteria to survive in an acidic solution. Two notable exceptions to this are acetobacter and the lactic acid bacteria. In red wines, acidity helps preserve and stabilize the color of the wine. The ionization of anthocyanins is affected by pH so wines with lower pH (such as Sangiovese based wines) have redder colors that are more stable. Wines with higher pH (such as Syrah based wines) have more blue pigments that are less stable, eventually taking on a muddy grey hue. These wines can also develop a brownish tinge. In white wines, higher pH (and such lower acidity) cause the phenolics in the wine to darken and eventually polymerize as brown deposits.
Winemakers will sometimes add additional acids to the wine, known as acidification, in order to increase the acidity level of the wine. This is most common in warm climate regions where grapes are often harvested at advanced stages of ripeness with high levels of sugars but very low levels of acid. Tartaric acid is most often added but winemakers will sometimes add citric or malic acid. Acids can be added either before or after primary fermentation. It can be added during blending or aging but the increase acidity will become more noticeable to wine tasters if added at this point.