The 1st National People's Congress
: 第一届全国人民代表大会) was in session from 1954 to 1959. It held four plenary sessions in this period. There were 1226 deputies to the Congress.
The first plenary session was held in September 1954. The Congress passed the 1954 Constitution of the People's Republic of China. It elected the state leaders:
- President of the People's Republic of China: Mao Zedong
- Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress: Liu Shaoqi
- Premier of the State Council: Zhou Enlai
- President of the Supreme People's Court: Dong Biwu
- Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate: Zhang Dingcheng