During the German Sixth Army's assault on Stalingrad in August 1942, the Red Army launched a counter-offensive to drive the German forces back. The 1st Guards Army and the 24th Army launched the attack. Little success was met. The 1st Guards Army managed an advance of just a few miles, while the 24th Army was pushed back right into its start-line.
When the German troops were making their attack on Stalingrad, the First Guards Army was facing the Italian Eighth Army in the upper part of the Don River. During November 1942 1st Guards Army was reformed from 63rd Army, as Operation Uranus was taking place. The First Guards Army stayed in that position until Operation Wintergewitter in December 1942. After the German relief operation was held, the 1st Guards Army, along with the 6th Army and Soviet Third Guards Army, launched an attack in Operation Little Saturn. During the operation the Soviets defeated the Italian Eighth Army and gained a respectable amount of territory. By the end of the year, the 1st Guards Army was outside Millerovo.
The 1st Guards Army also took part in Operation Saturn, where the Red Army successfully drove back Army Group South to the Donets Basin basin in the Ukraine. In the Battle of Stalingrad, the 1st Guards Army was headed by General Dmitri Lelyushenko and included six rifle divisions as well as a Guards Mechanized Corps. The 1st Guards Army was part of the Soviet Southwestern Front, and took part in the victorious Soviet pushing into Germany in 1943 to 1945. Also, in 1943, the 1st Guards Army was the first unit of the soviet army to operate the new T-34/85 tank.
1st Guards Army was active for many years in the Kiev Military District after the Second World War, headquartered at Chernigov. For a period the army HQ was actually an operations group of the District. By this time it had been awarded the Order of Lenin. It included among its forces the 72nd Guards Motor Rifle Division, the 25th Guards Motor Rifle Division, and also at one point the 163rd Motor Rifle Division. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the Army became part of the Ukrainian Ground Forces.