The year 1983 in science and technology involved many significant events, as listed below.
- June: First report of using a monoclonal antibody as a medical test. References: Greener, Mark (2005). MAbs Turn 30. The Scientist 19(3):14-16. Klotz S.A.; Drutz D.J.; Tam M.R.; and Reed K.H. Hemorrhagic proctitis due to lymphogranuloma venereum serogroup L2. Diagnosis by fluorescent monoclonal antibody. New England Journal of Medicine 308(26):1563-1565. PMID 6602293.
- May: First report of the virus that causes AIDS. References: Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Vezinet-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Rozenbaum W, Montagnier L. (1983) Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science, 220, 868-871, PMID 6189183.
- April: Kary Mullis discovers polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
- Spain re-joins CERN after having left in 1969 (originally joined for the first time in 1961).