) was a common year starting on Saturday
(link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar
(or a common year starting on Thursday
of the 12-day slower Julian calendar
Events of 1870
January - March
- January 1
- January 3 - Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins.
- January 6 - The Musikverein, Vienna is inaugurated in Austria-Hungary.
- January 10 - John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil.
- January 15 - A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the United States Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly).
- January 26 - Reconstruction: Virginia rejoins the Union.
- January 27 - The first college sorority, Kappa Alpha Theta, is established at DePauw University.
- February - Vrain Denis-Lucas is sentenced to 2 years in prison for multiple forgery in Paris.
- February 1 - Goodna State School in Goodna, Queensland, Australia is founded.
- February 2 - It is revealed that the famed Cardiff Giant is just carved gypsum and not the petrified remains of a human.
- February 3 - The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution, guaranteeing African-Americans the right to vote, is passed.
- February 10
- February 12 - Women gain the right to vote in Utah Territory.
- February 23 - Military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union.
- February 25 - Hiram Rhodes Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, is sworn into the United States Senate, becoming the first African American ever to sit in the U.S. Congress.
- February 26 - In New York City, the first pneumatic subway is opened.
- February 28 - The Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire.
- March 2 - Francisco Solano López' last troops are cornered by Triple Alliance troops at Cerro Cora. López refuses to surrender and is killed. Fighting ends in Paraguay - the War of the Triple Alliance is over.
- March 4 - Thomas Scott is executed by Louis Riel's provisional government during the Red River Rebellion in modern day Manitoba Canada.
- March 19 - The Ohio Legislature passes the Cannon Act, thereby establishing the Ohio Agriculture and Mechanical College, later Ohio State University.
- March 24 - Syracuse University is established and officially opens.
- March 30
- March 31 - Thomas Mundy Peterson is the first African-American to vote in an election.
April - June
July - September
October - December
January - June
- January 2 - Ernst Barlach, German sculptor, graphic artist, and poet (d. 1938)
- January 6 - Gustav Bauer, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1944)
- January 8 - Miguel Primo de Rivera, dictator of Spain (d. 1930)
- January 11 - Alexander Stirling Calder, American sculptor (d. 1945)
- February 7 - Alfred Adler, Austrian psychologist (d. 1937)
- February 12 - Marie Lloyd, English singer (d. 1922)
- March 4 - Thomas Sturge Moore, English poet, author and artist (d. 1944)
- March 5 - Rosa Luxemburg, Polish-born German political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary (d. 1919)
- March 5 - Frank Norris, American writer (d. 1902)
- March 13 - Seale Harris, American Physician (d. 1957)
- March 17 - Horace Donisthorpe, English entomologist (d. 1951)
- March 20 - Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck, German general (d. 1964)
- April 1 - Hamaguchi Osachi, 27th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1931)
- April 4 - George Albert Smith, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1951)
- April 22 - Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary and first Premier of the Soviet Union (d. 1924)
- April 30 - Franz Lehár, Austrian composer (d. 1948)
- May 9 - Harry Vardon, English Golf Professional (d. 1937)
- May 19 - Albert Fish, American serial killer (d. 1936)
- June 13 - Jules Bordet, Belgian immunologist and microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1961)
July - December
- July 3 - Richard Bedford Bennett, eleventh Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1947)
- July 12 - Louis II, Prince of Monaco (d. 1949)
- July 16 - Lambert McKenna, Irish scholar (d. 1956)
- July 25 - Maxfield Parrish, American illustrator (d. 1966)
- July 29 - George Dixon, Canadian boxer (d. 1909)
- August 3 - Carrie Ingalls, younger sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1946)
- August 11 - Tom Richardson, English cricketer (d. 1912)
- August 31 - Maria Montessori, Italian educator (d. 1952)
- September 25 - James A. Hawken, schoolteacher (d. 1964)
- September 26 - King Christian X of Denmark (d. 1947)
- September 30 - Jean Baptiste Perrin, French physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1942)
- October 10 - Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)
- November 21 - Sigfrid Edström, Swedish sports official (d. 1964)
- November 27 - Juho Kusti Paasikivi, Prime Minister and President of Finland (d. 1956)
- December 5 - Vítězslav Novák, Czech composer (d. 1949)
- December 10 - Mary Bonaparte, pretender to the French imperial throne (d. 1947)
- December 12 - Walter Benona Sharp, American oil pioneer (d. 1912)
- December 18 - Saki, English writer (d. 1916)
- See also :Category: 1870 births.
January - June
July - December
- July 20 - Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt, French writer and publisher (b. 1830)
- September 12 - Fitz Hugh Ludlow, American author and explorer (b. 1836)
- September 23 - Prosper Mérimée, French writer (b. 1803)
- October 12 - Robert E. Lee, American Confederate general (b. 1807)
- November 24 - Comte de Lautreamont, French poet and writer (b. 1846)
- November 28 - Frédéric Bazille, French painter (b. 1841)
- December 5 - Alexandre Dumas, père, French author (b. 1802)
- December 27 - General Prim, Spanish dictator (b. 1814)
- date unknown - Patrick MacDowell, Northern Irish sculptor (b. 1799)
- See also :Category: 1870 deaths.