is a city in Nome Census Area
, United States
. At the 2000 census
the population was 203. The city is an Ibaohiufmuit (Fish River tribe) Eskimo village, with historical influences from and relationships with Kawerak and Yupiaq Eskimos. 86.2% of the population is Alaska Native or part Native. Subsistence activities are prevalent. White Mountain is the only village on the Seward Peninsula
located inland, not on the ocean.
The area that is present day White Mountain began as the Eskimo fish camp Nutchirviq
which means "mountain look-up point." The bountiful resources of both the Niukluk and the Fish Rivers supported the Native populations there. The community grew with the influx of white prospectors during the Klondike Gold Rush
. The first non-Native structure was a warehouse built by the miner Charles Lane to store supplies for his claim in the Council District. It was the site of a government-subsidized orphanage, which became an industrial school in 1926. The Covenant Church was built in 1937. A Russian Orthodox Church
was built about 1920 (although no longer utilized, the church log cabin building is still standing). A post office was opened in 1932. The tribal government re-organized under the Indian Reorganization Act
(IRA) in 1939. The city was incorporated in 1969.
White Mountain is located at (64.680856, -163.406538). The city is located on the eastern bank of the Fish River.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles (5.3 km²), of which, 1.8 square miles (4.6 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.6 km²) of it (11.82%) is water.
As of the census
of 2000, there were 203 people, 69 households, and 46 families residing in the city. The population density
was 113.7 people per square mile (44.0/km²). There were 75 housing units at an average density of 42.0/sq mi (16.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 13.30% White
, 83.74% Native American
, 0.49% from other races
, and 2.46% from two or more races. 0.49% of the population were Hispanic
of any race.
There were 69 households out of which 43.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.6% were married couples living together, 26.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.9% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.55.
In the city the population was spread out with 40.4% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 109.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 132.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $25,833, and the median income for a family was $29,688. Males had a median income of $41,250 versus $31,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $10,034. About 16.3% of families and 22.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under the age of eighteen and 12.5% of those sixty five or over.
White Mountain is served by the Bering Strait School District. White Mountain School serves grades Pre-K through 12, contained in three different facilities. The elementary school is housed in the oldest operating school building in Alaska. In February 2006 the high school building burned down resulting from a fire in the furnace room. Construction is now underway on a new school on the southern part of town.