[hwawr-tn, wawr-]
Wharton, Edith Newbold Jones, 1862-1937, American novelist, b. New York City, noted for her subtle, ironic, and superbly crafted fictional studies of New York society at the turn of the 20th cent. The daughter of a socially elect family, she was educated privately in New York and in Europe. In 1885 she married Edward Wharton, a Boston banker; after the first few years of marriage Edward Wharton became mentally ill, and the burden of caring for him fell upon his wife. Finally, in 1913, after she had settled permanently in France, Edith Wharton terminated the marriage by divorce.

Her early stories and tales were collected in The Greater Inclination (1899), Crucial Instances (1901), and The Descent of Man (1904); somewhat narrow in scope, they nevertheless show the unity of mood and the lucid, polished prose style of her more mature works. Much of her writing bears a resemblance to the fiction of Henry James, who was her close friend. However, the similarities are superficial, and in her best and most characteristic novels—The House of Mirth (1905) and The Age of Innocence (1920; Pulitzer Prize)—she asserts herself as a distinctive artist. Recreating the atmosphere of the unadventurous, ceremonious upper-class society of New York, she depicts in these and other works the cruelty of social convention, the changing fashions in morality, and the conflicts that arise between money values and moral values.

In the novella Ethan Frome (1911)—one of her best-known, most successful, and least characteristic works—Wharton evokes the tragic fate of three people against the stark background of rural New England. Among her many other novels are The Valley of Decision (1902), a historical novel of 18th-century Italy; The Custom of the Country (1913); Hudson River Bracketed (1929) and its sequel, The Gods Arrive (1932); and an unfinished work, The Buccaneers (1938). Collections of her short stories include Xingu and Other Stories (1916), Certain People (1930), and Ghosts (1937). Wharton also wrote travel books (e.g., Italian Backgrounds, 1905), books on interior design and architecture (e.g., The Decoration of Houses, 1897; Italian Villas and Their Gardens, 1904), literary criticism, and poetry. In 1915 she was awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honor by the French government for her services during World War I.


See her collected stories (2 vol., 2001); her autobiography, A Backward Glance (1934, repr. 1998); her letters, ed. by R. W. B. Lewis (1988); biographies by L. Auchincloss (1971), R. W. B. Lewis (1975, repr. 1985), S. Benstock (1994), E. Dwight (1994), and H. Lee (2007); studies by M. B. McDowell (1976, repr. 1991), C. G. Wolff (1977, repr. 1995), E. Ammons (1980), G. Walton (rev. ed. 1982), G. S. Rahi (1983), D. Holbrook (1991), B. A. White (1991), K. A. Fedorko (1995), C. J. Singley (1995), J. Dyman (1996), J. Beer (1997), S. B. Wright (1997), A. R. Tintner (1999), and H. Hoeller (2000).

Wharton, Francis, 1820-89, American clergyman and lawyer, b. Philadelphia, grad. Yale, 1839. Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1843, he became an authority on criminal law and wrote A Treatise on the Criminal Law of the United States (1846). He was (1856-63) professor of history and literature at Kenyon College. He was ordained (1862) an Episcopalian minister, and he was (1871-81) professor of canon law at the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, Mass. During this period he wrote A Treatise on the Conflict of Laws (1872). As head of the legal division of the U.S. Dept. of State (1885-88), he edited A Digest of the International Law of the United States (3 vol., 2d ed. 1887) and The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States (6 vol., 1889, 2d ed. 1969).

See biography by H. E. Wharton (1891).

Wharton, Thomas Wharton, 1st marquess of, 1648-1715, English politician. Before his entry into Parliament (1673) he had acquired the reputation as a rake and gambler that he retained for life. After 1679 he became active in Whig politics, supporting the attempt to exclude the duke of York (later James II) from the succession. He composed the words of the popular satirical ballad "Lilliburlero" (set to music by Henry Purcell), with which, he boasted, he sang James II out of his kingdom in 1688. William III made Wharton a privy councilor and comptroller of the household (1689). Queen Anne removed him because of her personal dislike and distrust of him on religious grounds, but he remained one of the powerful Whig politicians. He was a commissioner for the union with Scotland, was created (1706) earl, and served as lord lieutenant of Ireland (1708-10). George I made him lord privy seal (1714) and a marquess (1715).
Wharton most often refers to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

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