Superior as Abaye no doubt was in his dialectic analysis of halakhic sentences, he was, nevertheless, surpassed in this regard by Rava, with whom he had been closely associated from early youth. To the disputations between these amoraim we owe the development of the dialectic method in the treatment of halakhic traditions. Their debates are known as the "Havayot d'Abaye ve'Rava" (Debates of Abaye and Rava), the subjects of which were then considered such essential elements of Talmudic knowledge that by an anachronism they were thought to be known to Yohanan ben Zakkai, who lived some centuries before (Sukkah 28a). Their halakhic controversies are scattered throughout the Babylonian Talmud. With the exception of six of his decisions, the opinions of Rava were always accepted as final. Abaye was never so happy as when one of his disciples had completed the study of a Mishnah treatise. On such occasions, he always gave a feast to his pupils (Shabbat 118b), though his circumstances were needy, and wine never appeared upon his table. His peace-loving disposition and his sincere piety are well exhibited in his maxims (Berachot 17a), among which occur the following: "Be mild in speech; suppress your wrath; and maintain good-will in intercourse with your relatives as well as with others, even with strangers in the market-place."
Abaye urged his disciples to conduct themselves in such a way as to lead others to the love of God (Yoma 86a). In Biblical exegesis, he was one of the first to draw a distinct line between the evident meaning of the text (peshat) and the sense ascribed to it by midrashic interpretation. He formulated the following rule, of great importance in Talmudic exegesis (Sanhedrin 34a): "One Bible verse can be referred to different subjects, but several different Bible verses can not refer to one and the same subject." He defended the Apocryphal book Ecclesiasticus against his teacher Joseph. By quoting from it a number of edifying passages he showed that it did not belong to the heretical books which are forbidden, and even compelled his teacher to admit that quotations might with advantage be taken from it for homiletical purposes (Sanhedrin 100b). Possessing an extensive knowledge of tradition, Abaye became a most eager disciple of Dimi, the Palestinian amora, who had brought to Babylonia a perfect treasury of interpretations by Palestinian amoraim. Abaye considered Dimi, as a representative of the Palestinian school, a qualified Bible exegete, and used to ask him how this or that Bible verse was explained in "the West," or Palestine. Of his own interpretations of Biblical passages only a few, of a haggadic nature, are preserved; but he often supplements, elucidates, or corrects the opinions of older authorities.