Recovery and reuse of materials from consumed products. The main motives for recycling have been the increasing scarcity and cost of natural resources (including oil, gas, coal, mineral ores, and trees) and the pollution of air (see air pollution), water (see water pollution), and land by waste materials. There are two types of recycling, internal and external. Internal recycling is the reuse in a manufacturing process of materials that are a waste product of that process, and is common in the metals industry (see scrap metal). External recycling is the reclaiming of materials from a product that is worn out or no longer useful; an example is the collection of old newspapers and magazines for the manufacture of newsprint or other paper products.
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Bodily process for disposing of undigested food waste products and nitrogenous by-products of metabolism, regulating water content, maintaining acid-base balance, and controlling osmotic pressure to promote homeostasis. It refers to both urination and defecation and to the processes that take place in the digestive and urinary systems, as the kidney and liver filter wastes, toxins, and drugs from the blood and food reaches the last stage of digestion. Ammonia from protein digestion, the primary excretory product, is converted to urea to be excreted in urine.
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After its release, WASTE was removed from distribution by AOL, Nullsoft's parent company. The original page was replaced with a statement claiming that the posting of the software was unauthorized and that no lawful rights to it were held by anyone who had downloaded it, in spite of the original claim that the software was released under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
Several developers have modified and upgraded the WASTE client and protocol. The SourceForge edition is considered by many to be the "official" development branch, but there are several forks.
Once connected to the network, public keys are automatically exchanged amongst members (provided enough of the members are set to forward & accept public keys), and nodes will then attempt to connect to each other, strengthening the network (decreasing the odds that any one node going down will collapse or shut out any part of the network), as well as increasing the number of possible routes from any given point to any other point, decreasing latency and bandwidth required for communication and file transfer.
Since WASTE connects small, private groups rather than large, public ones, the network search feature is one of the fastest of all the decentralized P2P applications. Its instant messaging & file sharing capabilities are much closer to those of AOL Instant Messenger than more typical file sharing programs. Members of the network can create private and public chat rooms, instant message each other, browse each other's files, and trade files, including the pushing or active sending of files by hosts, as well as the more common downloading by users. Simple drag-and-drop to chat boxes will send files to their intended destinations.
The suggested size for a WASTE network (referred to as a "mesh" by users) is 10-50 nodes, though it has been suggested that the size of the network is less critical than the ratio of nodes willing to route traffic to those that are not. With original Frankel client legacy groups now approaching five years of age, it's not uncommon for stable meshes to host multiple terabytes of secure content.
Since there is no central hub, WASTE networks typically employ a password or passphrase, also called a "network name" to prevent collision. That is, a member from one network connecting to a member of another network, thus bridging the two networks. By assigning a unique identifier (passphrase) to your network, the risk of collisions can be reduced, particularly with the original clients.
The previous Windows release on SourceForge is 1.5 beta 3.
A "non-official" 1.6 Windows edition addresses some UI and privacy concerns. As of version 1.7, WASTE comes in an experimental and a stable release. The experimental branch implements a new 16k packet size, which while reducing overhead and improving transfer speeds breaks backwards compatibility with previous versions implementing a 4k packet size.
VIA Technologies released a fork of WASTE under the name PadlockSL, but removed the product's website after a few weeks. The user interface was written in Qt and the client was available for Linux and Windows.
Waste-management challenges must be grasped ; The concept of 'zero waste', as advanced by Earthwatch, is not grounded in reality and does not provide the answer to Ireland's waste-management problems, argues Donal Buckley
Aug 14, 2002; The case made by Tom Prendeville of Earthwatch in his article on Tuesday - "Ending the throwaway mentality can be good for...