James Francis Cagney, Jr. (July 17, 1899 – March 30, 1986) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor who won acclaim for a wide variety of roles, including the career-launching The Public Enemy. He was an accomplished vaudeville performer, won an Oscar for Best Actor for his portrayal of a song-and-dance man in 1942 for his role in Yankee Doodle Dandy, but is still best known for his 'tough guy' roles
Like James Stewart, Cagney became so familiar to audiences that they usually referred to him as "Jimmy" Cagney — a billing never found on any of his films.
Cagney was among Stanley Kubrick's favorite actors and was declared by Orson Welles as "maybe the greatest actor to ever appear in front of a camera. Warner Brothers would arrange private screenings of Cagney films for Winston Churchill.
He earned the nickname The Professional Againster and walked out on major studio Warner Brothers numerous times, each time coming back on improved personal and artistic terms. He was president of the Screen Actors Guild for two terms, and made numerous morale-boosting tours of troops during the Second World War.
The red-haired, blue-eyed Cagney graduated from Stuyvesant High School in New York City in 1918 and attended Columbia College of Columbia University , where he intended to major in art. He also took German and joined the Student Army Training Corps. He dropped out after one semester and returned home upon the death of his father in the Spanish flu epidemic.
He had a range of jobs early in his life, all contributing to the family fund: junior architect, copy boy for the New York Sun, book custodian at the New York Public Library, bellhop, draughtsman and a night doorman. Cagney believed in hard work: "It was good for me. I feel sorry for the kid who has too cushy a time of it. Suddenly he has to come to face-to-face with the realities of life without any mama or papa to do his thinking for him"
He started tap dancing as a boy (a skill that would eventually contribute to his Academy Award) and was nicknamed 'Cellar-Door Cagney' after his habit of dancing on slanted cellar doors. He was also a good street fighter, fighting on his older med-student brother Harry's behalf when necessary and taking on all-comers as necessary, as well as boxing as an amateur, including a runner-up in the New York State lightweight title. He was good enough for his coaches to encourage him to turn professional, though his mother would not let him. He also played semi-professional baseball for a local side, and indeed was good enough to entertain dreams of playing in the Major Leagues
His introduction to movies was unusual; when visiting an aunt in Brooklyn who lived opposite Vitagraph Studios, Cagney would climb over the fence to watch the filming of John Bunny films. He also became involved in amateur dramatics, starting as a scenery boy for a Chinese pantomime at the London Hill Settlement House, where his brother Harry was on-stage. He was quite happy working behind the scenes, he had no interest in performing. One night, however, he stood in for his brother Harry who had been taken ill. James was not an understudy, but his photographic memory of rehearsals allowed him to stand in for his brother without making a mistake. After that he joined as a performer, he performed in a variety of roles for a number of companies.
For there [on stage] I am not myself. I am not that fellow, Jim Cagney, at all. I certainly lost all consciousness of him when I put on skirts, wig, paint, powder, feathers and spangles.
Had Cagney's mother had her way, his stage career would have ended when he quit Every Sailor after two months; proud as she was of his performance, she felt it better that he get an education. Cagney though appreciated the money, $35 a week, "A mountain of money for me in those worrisome days." In deference to his mother's worries, he got yet another job, this time as a brokerage house runner. This didn't stop him looking for more stage work though, and he went on and successfully auditioned for a chorus part in Pitter Patter, for which he earned $55 a week, of which he sent $40 a week back to his mother. So strong was his habit of working more than one job at a time, he also acted as a dresser for one of the leads, portering the casts' luggage and understudying the lead. Amongst the chorus line was 16 year-old Frances Willard 'Billie' Vernon, who he would marry in 1922. The show began a 10 year association with vaudeville and Broadway.
Pitter Patter was not hugely successful, but did well enough to run for 32 weeks and allowed Cagney to join the vaudeville circuit. Cagney and Vernon toured separately with a number of different troupes, reuniting as Vernon and Nye to do simple comedy routines and musical numbers. The Nye was a rearrangement of the last syllable of Cagney's surname. One of the troupes that Cagney would join was Parker, Rand and Leach when Leach left. Leach was Archie Leach, who went on to fame as Cary Grant.
After more years of touring, performing and struggling to make money to live and survive, in 1924 they moved to Hawthorne, California, partly for Cagney to meet his new mother-in-law who had just moved there from Chicago and partly to investigate breaking into the movies. Their train fares were paid for by a friend of theirs, the press officer of Pitter Patter who was also desperate to break into acting and felt that Hollywood was the place to do it. They didn't have a lot of success; Cagney's dance studio had few clients and folded, he and Vernon toured the studios but could get no interest. Eventually they borrowed some money and headed back to New York and vaudeville (via Chicago and Milwaukee and endured repeated failures to make money on the stage ).
1925 saw Cagney secure his first significant non dancing role. Significantly, he played a young tough guy in the three act play by Maxwell Anderson, Outside Looking In, earning him $200 a week. As with Pitter Patter, Cagney went to the audition with little confidence of getting the part; this was drama, not vaudeville. Cagney felt that he only got the part of 'Little Red' as he was one of the two red-headed performers in New York, and assumed he got the part because his hair was redder than Alan Bunce's. Nevertheless, the play generally, and Cagney in particular received good reviews: Life magazine wrote: "Mr Cagney, in a less spectacular role [than his co-star] makes a few minutes silence during his mock-trial scene something that many a more established actor might watch with profit", Burns Mantle that it "contained the most honest acting now to be seen in New York".
After the four month run ended, Cagney went back to vaudeville for the next couple of years, again with varied success, but off the back of Outside Looking In the Cagney's were much better able to pay their bills. During this period, Cagney met George M. Cohan, whom he would go on to portray in Yankee Doodle Dandy, though they never actually spoke..
Cagney secured the lead role in the 1926-27 season West End production of Broadway by George Abbott. However, the show's management insisted that Cagney copy Broadway lead Lee Tracy's performance but Cagney was uncomfortable in trying to do so. The day before the show sailed for England, however, the management decided that Cagney should be replaced. This was a devastating turn of events for Cagney. Apart from the logistical difficulties this presented (their luggage was in the hold of the ship and they had given up their apartment), he almost quit show business. As Billie recalled:
Fortunately for the Cagneys (Billie was in the chorus line of the show), they had run-of-the-play contracts, and with help from the Actors Equity Association, Cagney took up the understudy role to Tracy on the Broadway show, providing them with a desperately needed steady income. Cagney also set-up a dance school for professionals to expand their skills. He then picked up another role in the play Women Go On Forever, directed by John Cromwell that ran for four months. By the end of the run, Cagney was exhausted after both acting and running the dance school.
However, he had built up a reputation as an innovative teacher, and so when he was cast as the lead in Grand Street Follies of 1928 he also was appointed the choreographer, and the show got rave reviews. This was followed by Grand Street Follies of 1929.
These led onto a part in George Kelly's Maggie the Magnificent, a play not liked by the critics, although Cagney's performance was. Cagney saw this role, (and Women Go on Forever) as significant because of the talent that directed them, he learnt
what a director was for and what a director could do. They were directors who could play all the parts in the play better than the actors cast for them
Playing opposite Cagney in Maggie the Magnificent was Joan Blondell, and the two were reunited a few months later in Marie Baumer's new play Penny Arcade , a show that would change Cagney's life forever, and ensure that he would never know poverty again.
There was a line in the show where I was supposed to be crying on my mother's breast... [The line] was "I'm your baby, ain't I?" I refused to say it. Adolfi said "I'm going to tell Zanuck." I said "I don't give a shit what you tell him, I'm not going to say that line". They took the line out.
Despite this outburst, the studio liked him, and before his three-week contract was up and while shooting was still going on on the film, they gave Cagney a three-week extension and then a full seven-year contract at $400 a week. It was not all great for Cagney however; the contract allowed Warner to drop him at the end of any 40-week period, effectively guaranteeing him 40 weeks income and after that there would be no further guarantees. As when he was growing up, Cagney shared his money with his family.
With the good reviews that Cagney received, he immediately starred in another gangster role in Doorway to Hell which was a financial hit, helping cement Cagney's growing reputation. He made four more movies before his breakthrough role.
Warner Brothers′ succession of gangster movie hits, in particular Edward G. Robinson's Little Caesar, and Cagney's strong reviews in gangster movies in his short film career came together in the 1931 film The Public Enemy. Cagney was cast to play the role of nice-guy Matt Doyle, opposite Edward Woods' role of Tom Powers. However, after the initial rushes, the two were swapped.. The film was low budget, costing only $151,000 to make, but went on to gross over $1 million, one of the first low budget films to do so.
If the quality of the film itself was not realized until much later, Cagney's performance certainly was. The New York Herald Tribune described Cagney's performance as "the most ruthless, unsentimental appraisal of the meanness of a petty killer the cinema has yet devised." Cagney received top billing for the film and while he acknowledged the importance of the role to his career, he always disputed that the role changed the way heroes and leading men were portrayed, citing Clark Gable's slapping of Barbara Stanwyck six months earlier as more important.
Cagney's stubbornness was starting to become well known behind the scenes, not least after his refusal to join in a 100% participation charity drive that was being pushed by Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.. Donating money to charity wasn't the issue, being forced to was. Already he had acquired the nickname The Professional Againster.
Warners were quick to combine their two rising 'gangster' stars in Cagney and Robinson for Cagney's next film (for which he received second billing) Smart Money in 1931. So keen were the studio to follow up the success of Robinson's Little Caesar that Cagney actual shot Smart Money at the same time as The Public Enemy. As in The Public Enemy, Cagney is required to be physically violent to a woman, this time slapping co-star Evalyn Knapp, a signal that Warners were keen to keep Cagney in the public eye.
With the introduction of the United States Motion Picture Production Code of 1930, and particularly its edicts on on-screen violence, Warners decided to allow Cagney a change of pace, and so cast him in the comedy Blonde Crazy, again opposite Blondell.
As he completed filming of his comedy, The Public Enemy was filling cinemas with all-night showings and Cagney began to compare his pay with his peers, thinking his contract allowed for salary adjustments based on the success of his films. Warners disagreed, however, and refused to a pay raise, and also insisted that Cagney continue promoting studio films, even the ones he wasn't in, something he was opposed to. Cagney wasn't prepared to be pushed around, however, and packed his trunks, left his apartment to his brother Bill to look after, and returned to New York with Billie.
While the Cagneys were in New York, brother Bill, who had effectively become James' agent, started talks with the studio about a substantial pay rise and more personal freedom. Warner's hand was forced by the success of Blonde Crazy, and they eventually offered Cagney an improved contract of $1000 a week.
His first film on his return from New York was the 1932 film Taxi!, a significant film for two reasons: it was the first time that Cagney danced on screen and secondly it was the last time he would allow himself to be shot at with live ammunition, which was a common occurrence at the time, before blank cartridges and squibs had been perfected. He had experienced it in The Public Enemy, but this time he almost got hit. The film was again praised by critics, and Warners had another hit on their hands, and was swiftly followed by The Crowd Roars and Winner Takes All.
Despite this success, Cagney was not happy with his contract, wanting more money for his successful films and offering to take a smaller salary should his star wane in the future. Warners refused, and so Cagney once again walked out. He was holding out for $4000 a week , the same amount as Edward G. Robinson, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., and Kay Francis. Warners this time refused to cave in, and suspended Cagney. Cagney announced that he would do his next three pictures for free if Warners canceled the remaining five years on his contract. He also threatened to quit Hollywood and go back to Columbia university and follow his brothers into Medicine. After six months of suspension, a deal, brokered by Frank Capra, saw Cagney receiving an improved salary of around $3000 a week and a guarantee of no more than four films a year and top billing.
This may have seemed ruthless considering the backdrop of the Great Depression, but Cagney, having learned about the block-booking studio system that almost guaranteed them huge profits, was determined to spread the wealth. He would also send money and goods to old friends from his neighborhood, though he didn't generally make this known. Cagney's insistence on no more than four films a year was based on his experience of the Hollywood acting trade where actors—even teenagers—would regularly work 100 hours a week turning out films. This experience would also be an integral part of his involvement in the formation of the Screen Actors Guild, which came into existence in 1933.
Cagney returned to the studio and made Hard to Handle, followed by a steady stream of films, including the highly regarded Footlight Parade, which gave Cagney the chance to return to his song-and-dance roots, and was Warners first real attempt at the musical genre. It was thought of as one of Cagney's best early films, featuring particular show-stopping scenes in the Busby Berkeley choreographed routines. His next notable film was 1934's Here Comes the Navy which saw him pair up with Pat O'Brien for the first time, which would lead them to a long friendship.
1935 was a critical year for Cagney. He was listed as one of the 'Top Ten Moneymakers in Hollywood' for the first time. He was cast more frequently outside of gangster roles; in G-Men he played a lawyer who joined the FBI, and he also took on his first, and only, Shakespearean role, as Nick Bottom in A Midsummer Night's Dream, which featured Mickey Rooney as Puck, though it was not critically well received.
Cagney's last 1935 movie was Ceiling Zero and his third with Pat O'Brien. Significantly though, O'Brien received top billing, above Cagney in what was a clear breach of his (Cagney's) contract. This, combined with the fact that he had made five movies in 1934, again against his contract terms, was too much for Cagney, and he brought legal proceedings against Warners for breach of contract. The dispute dragged on for several months. Cagney received calls from David Selznick and Sam Goldwyn, but neither felt in a position to offer him work while the dispute went on.
While the legal dispute rumbled on, with Cagney's brother Bill representing James in court, James and Billie went back to New York and looked for a country property where he could indulge in his passion for farming.
The timing was fortunate for Cagney, as the courts decided the Warners lawsuit in Cagney's favor. He had done what many would have thought unthinkable; taken on the studios and won., Not only did he win the suit, but Warners knew that he was still a huge star, and invited him back in a 5-year, $150,000 a film deal, with no more than 2 films a year and with Cagney having full say over what films he did and didn't make. William Cagney was also guaranteed a deal in an assistant producer for the films James would star in.
Cagney had established the power of the walkout as keeping the studios to their word:
"I walked out because I depended on the studio heads to keep their word on this, that or other promise, and when the promise was not kept, my only recourse was to deprive them of my services."
Cagney himself acknowledged the importance of the walkout for other actors in breaking the dominance of the studio system. Normally when stars walked out, the time they were absent was added on to the end of their already long contract, as happened with Olivia de Havilland and Bette Davis. Cagney could walk out and came back with an improved contract. Unsurprisingly, the whole of Hollywood watched the case closely for hints of how future contracts might be handled..
Artistically, the Grand National experiment was a success for Cagney, who was able to move away from his traditional Warners tough guy roles to more sympathetic characters. How far he could have experimented and developed can never be known, but certainly back in the Warners fold he was back playing tough guys.
Cagney starred as Rocky Sullivan, a gangster fresh out of jail looking for his former associate (played by supporting player Humphrey Bogart, their first film together) who owes him money. Whilst revisiting his old haunts he runs into his old friend Jerry Connolly who is now a priest looking after the Dead End Kids. The kids idolize Rocky, much to Connolly's concern. After a messy shoot-out, Sullivan is eventually captured by the police and sentenced to death by electric chair. Connolly pleads with Rocky to 'turn yellow' on his way to the chair so that the Kids lose their respect for him, and hopefully avoid a life of crime. Sullivan refuses, but on his way to the chair does beg for his life. The film is ambiguous in whether this cowardice was for real or just for the Kids' benefit. Cagney himself refused to say, insisting he liked the ambiguity and the audience making its own mind up. The film is regarded by many as one of Cagney's finest and garnered him an Academy Award for Best Actor nomination for 1938 (losing out to Spencer Tracy in Boys Town, a role which, ironically Cagney had been considered for, but lost out on due to his tough guy image ), but winning the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor.
Cagney's earlier insistence on not filming with live ammunition came to good during the filming of Angels with Dirty Faces. Having been told he would film a scene with real machine gun bullets, Cagney refused, and insisted the shots be superimposed afterwards. As it turned out, he was right, a ricocheting bullet passing through exactly where his head would have been.
Cagney's first year back at Warners saw him becoming the studio's highest earner, earning $324,000.
Cagney completed his first decade of movie-making in 1939, with The Roaring Twenties, his first film with Raoul Walsh and last with Bogart. It was, perhaps more surprisingly, his last 'gangster' film for ten years. Cagney again got good reviews, Graham Greene stating "Mr Cagney, of the bull-calf brow, is as always a superb and witty actor". The Roaring Twenties was also the last film where violence was explained as part of a poor upbringing or the environment around the character, as in The Public Enemy. From this point on, violence was attached to mania, as in White Heat
1939 also saw him second only to Gary Cooper in the national wage stakes, earning $368,333.
Producer Hal Wallis said that having seen Cohen in I'd Rather Be Right, he never considered anyone other than Cagney for the role. Cagney himself, on the other hand, insists that Fred Astaire had been the first choice and turned it down.
Filming began the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the cast and crew worked in a "patriotic frenzy" as the US's early involvement in World War Two gave the cast and crew a feeling that "they might be sending the last message from the free world", according to actress Rosemary DeCamp.
Cohan himself had a private showing, shortly before his death, and thanked Cagney "for a wonderful job" . A paid for premiere with seats ranging from $25 to $25,000, raised $5,750,000 in war bonds for the US treasury.
Many critics of the time and since have declared it to be Cagney's best film, and draw parallels between Cohan and Cagney; a career begun in vaudeville, years of struggle before reaching the peak of their profession, the surrounding with family (during his career, brothers Bill and Ed and sister Jeanne worked for Cagney Productions), early marriage, and a wife who was happy to sit back while he went on to stardom.
Certainly it was Cagney's most important film in terms of awards, winning him the Best Actor Oscar (amongst three others Oscars for the film and eight nominations). In his acceptance speech, Cagney said
I've always maintained that in this business, you're only as good as the other fellow thinks you are. It's nice to know that you people thought I did a good job. And don't forget that it was a good part, too.
Coming on the back of his biggest success, and particularly because it didn't come from a gangster movie, Cagney felt that it was time, once again, to leave Warners. He had lost out on Boys' Town to Tracy, and also lost the role of Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne in Knute Rockne, All American to his friend Pat O'Brien, both because of the hard-man image that Warners had developed for him.
Having won his Oscar just as his Warners contract was due for renewal, he could have asked for whatever he wanted and they would have given it to him, but Cagney was determined to be his own man, and so announced in March 1942 that he and brother Bill were setting up Cagney Productions to release films though United Artists.
Almost a year after announcing the creation of his new production company, in March 1943 Cagney's new company produced its first film, Johnny Come Lately. While the main studios were producing patriotic war movies, Cagney was determined to stick to his own path and to continue to try and shake off his tough guy image and produced a movie that was a "complete and exhilarating exposition of the Cagney "alter-ego" on film" According to Cagney, the film "made money but it was no great winner", and criticism of it varied from excellent in Time to the poor from New York's PM.
Following the completion of the film, Cagney went back to the USO and toured US military bases in the UK. He refused to do any interviews with the UK press, preferring to concentrate on rehearsals and performances, giving several shows a day for the Army Signal Corps. The show, called The American Cavalcade of Dance consisted of a history of American dance, from the earliest days through to Fred Astaire, and culminating with dances from Yankee Doodle Dandy.
The second movie Cagney's company would produce was Blood On the Sun, a film for which Cagney, insisting on doing his own stunts, required judo training from Ken Kuniyuki, a judo expert, and Jack Halloran, a former policeman.. The Cagneys had hoped that a more action based James Cagney film would appeal more to the audience, but the film fared worse at the box office than Johnny Come Lately.
At this time, Cagney heard of Audie Murphy, a young war hero who appeared on the front of Life magazine. Cagney thought that he had the looks to be a success in movies, and suggested that he come to Hollywood for a try-out, but Murphy couldn't act, and his contract was loaned out then sold on.
While negotiating the rights for their third independent film, Cagney took up an offer from 20th Century Fox to star in 13 Rue Madeleine at $300,000 for two months work. . The film was a success, and Cagney was keen to pick up production of his new project, an adaptation of a Broadway play, William Saroyan's The Time of Your Life. Saroyan himself love the film but it was a commercial disaster, costing the company half a million dollars, with audiences again struggling to accept Cagney out of tough guy roles.
Cagney productions was in serious trouble; poor returns from the produced films and a legal dispute with Sam Goldwyn Studio over a rental agreement all forced Cagney back to Warners. Cagney signed a distribution-production deal with Warners for the film White Heat, effectively Cagney Productions became a unit of Warner Brothers.
It was essentially a cheapie one-two-three-four kind of thing, so I suggested we make him nuts. It was agreed so we put in all those fits and headaches
The film has a number of memorable scenes and lines. Cagney's closing lines of the film "Made it, Ma! Top of the world!" before exploding in a huge fireball was voted the 18th greatest movie line by the American Film Institute. Cagney's explosion of rage in prison on being told of Jarrett's mother's death is one of his most memorable and extraordinary performances. Such was the violence that he gave the performance some of the extras on the set were terrified of destruction that Cagney wrought. Cagney attributed the performance to his father's alcohol induced rages that he had seen as a child, as well as someone that he had seen on a visit to a mental hospital.
The film was a critical success, though some critics wondered about the social impact of a character that they at least saw as sympathetic. Cagney though was still struggling against the gangster typecasting, saying to a journalist "It's what the people want me to do. Some day, though, I'd like to make another movie that kids could go and see"
The following film was another gangster movie, Kiss Tomorrow Goodbye, which was Cagney Productions first movie for Warners since returning. Whilst it was compared, unfavourably to White Heat by critics, it was fairly successful at the box office, with $500,000 going straight to Cagney Productions' bankers to pay off their losses.
Cagney productions was not a great success however, and in 1953, the company ended and William Cagney produced his last film, A Lion Is In The Streets.
Cagney's next most notable role was the 1955 film Love Me or Leave Me, and his third with Day. Cagney played Martin "Moe the Gimp" Snyder, a lame Jewish-American gangster from Chicago, a role Spencer Tracy turned down. Cagney described the script as "that extremely rare thing, the perfect script". When the film was released, Snyder reportedly asked how Cagney had so accurately copied his limp , but Cagney himself insisted he hadn't, he had made it up based on personal observation of other people when they limped "What I did was very simple. I just slapped my foot down as I turned it out while walking. That's all"
His performance earned him another Best Actor Academy Award nomination, 17 yeas after his first. Reviews were strong, and the film is considered to be one of his best of his later career, and in Day he had found a co-star he could build a rapport with such as he had had with Blondell at the start of his career, and Day herself was full of praise for Cagney
He's the most professional actor I've ever known. He was always 'real'. I simply forgot we were making a picture. His eyes would actually fill up when we were working on a tender scene. And you never needed drops to make your eyes shine when Jimmy was on the set.|40|40|Doris Day|
Cagney's next film was Mister Roberts, directed by John Ford and slated to star Spencer Tracy. It was Tracy's involvement that ensured that Cagney accepted the minor role, though in the end Tracy didn't take part and was replaced by Henry Fonda. Cagney had worked with Ford before on What Price Glory?, and had got on fairly well. However, as soon as Ford met Cagney at the airport, he (Ford) warned that they would "tangle asses", which caught Cagney by surprise. The next day, Cagney was slightly late on set, and Ford was fuming. Cagney cut short the immanent tirade, saying "When I started this picture, you said that we would tangle asses before this was over. I'm ready now - are you?" Ford walked away and he and Cagney had no more problems, even if he never particularly liked Ford. Cagney's skill at noticing tiny details in other actor's performances re-appeared during the shooting of Mister Roberts. When watching the Kraft Music Hall anthology television show some months before, Cagney had noticed Jack Lemmon performing left-handed. The first thing that Cagney asked Lemmon when they met to film was if he was still using his left hand. Lemmon was shocked, he had done it on a whim, hadn't told anyone and thought no-one else had noticed.
His powers of observation must be absolutely incredible, in addition to the fact that he remembered it. I was very flattered.|40|40|Jack Lemmon|
The film was a success, securing three Oscar nominations, including Best Picture, Best Sound Recording and Best Supporting Actor for Lemmon, who won. Whilst Cagney wasn't nominated, he had thoroughly enjoyed the production. Filming on Midway Island and in a more minor role meant that he had time to relax and engage in his hobby of painting and also of drawing caricatures of the cast and crew.
Throughout the remainder of the 1950s, Cagney also worked with various different films studios before finally retiring from acting in 1961.
Cagney's health deteriorated substantially after 1979. Cagney's final appearance in a feature film was in Ragtime (1981), capping a career that covered over 70 films, although his last film prior to Ragtime had occurred 20 years earlier with Billy Wilder's One, Two, Three (1961). During the long hiatus, Cagney rebuffed all film offers, including a substantial role in My Fair Lady as well as a blank check from Charles Bluhdorn at Gulf & Western to play Vito Corleone in The Godfather, to devote time to learning how to paint (at which he became very accomplished), and tending to his beloved farm in Stanfordville, New York. His roles in Ragtime and Terrible Joe Moran, a 1984 made-for-television movie, were designed to aid in his convalescence.
On September 28, 1922, he married dancer Frances Willard (aka: "Billie") Vernon (1899 – 1994) with whom he remained for the rest of his life. They adopted a son, James Cagney Jr, and a daughter, Cathleen "Casey" Cagney. Both his brother William, who was also a producer, and sister Jeanne were actors.
James Cagney died at his Dutchess County farm in Stanfordville, New York, aged 86, of a heart attack. He is interred in the Cemetery of the Gate of Heaven in Hawthorne, New York. His pallbearers included boxer Floyd Patterson, Mikhail Baryshnikov (who had hoped to play Cagney on Broadway), actor Ralph Bellamy and director Miloš Forman. His close friend President Ronald Reagan gave the eulogy at Cagney's funeral.
As acting techniques became increasingly systematic (as in the case of "Method Acting"), Cagney was asked during the filming of Mister Roberts about his approach to acting. As Jack Lemmon related in the television special, "James Cagney: Top of the World", which aired on July 5, 1992, Cagney said that the secret to acting was simply this: "Learn your lines... plant your feet... look the other actor in the eye... say the words... mean them".
|1930||The Doorway to Hell||Steve Mileaway|
|Sinners' Holiday||Harry Delano|
|1931||How I Play Golf||Himself||uncredited|
|Blonde Crazy||Bert Harris|
|The Millionaire||Schofield, Insurance Salesman|
|The Public Enemy||Tom Powers|
|Other Men's Women||Ed 'Eddie' Bailey|
|1932||Winner Take All||Jim 'Jimmy' Kane|
|The Crowd Roars||Joe Greer|
|1933||Lady Killer||Dan Quigley|
|Footlight Parade||Chester Kent|
|The Mayor of Hell||Richard 'Patsy' Gargan|
|Picture Snatcher||Danny Kean|
|Hard to Handle||Myron C. 'Lefty' Merrill|
|1934||The St. Louis Kid||Eddie Kennedy|
|The Hollywood Gad-About||Himself||short subject|
|Here Comes the Navy||Chester 'Chesty' J. O'Conner|
|He Was Her Man||Flicker Hayes, aka Jerry Allen|
|Jimmy the Gent||'Jimmy' Corrigan|
|1935||Mutiny on the Bounty||Extra||uncredited|
|A Midsummer Night's Dream||Bottom, the weaver|
|The Irish in Us||Danny O'Hara|
|G Men||'Brick' Davis|
|Devil Dogs of the Air||Thomas Jefferson 'Tommy' O'Toole|
|Trip Thru a Hollywood Studio||Himself||short subject|
|A Dream Comes True||Himself||short subject|
|Frisco Kid||Bat Morgan|
|1936||Great Guy||Johnny 'Red' Cave|
|Ceiling Zero||Dizzy Davis|
|1937||Something to Sing About||Terrence 'Terry' Rooney||stage name of Thadeus McGillicuddy|
|1938||Angels with Dirty Faces||Rocky Sullivan||Nominated - Academy Award for Best Actor|
|Boy Meets Girl||Robert Law|
|For Auld Lang Syne||Himself - Introducing arriving celebrities||short subject|
|1939||The Roaring Twenties||Eddie Bartlett|
|Each Dawn I Die||Frank Ross|
|Hollywood Hobbies||Himself||short subject|
|The Oklahoma Kid||Jim Kincaid|
|1940||City for Conquest||Danny Kenny (Young Samson)|
|Torrid Zone||Nick 'Nicky' Butler|
|The Fighting 69th||Jerry Plunkett|
|1941||The Bride Came C.O.D.||Steve Collins|
|The Strawberry Blonde||T. L. 'Biff' Grimes|
|1942||Yankee Doodle Dandy||George M. Cohan||Academy Award for Best Actor|
|Captains of the Clouds||Brian MacLean (bush pilot)|
|1943||Johnny Come Lately||Tom Richards|
|You, John Jones!||John Jones||short subject|
|1944||Battle Stations||Narrator||short subject|
|1945||Blood on the Sun||Nick Condon|
|1947||13 Rue Madeleine||Robert Emmett 'Bob' Sharkey aka Gabriel Chavat|
|1948||The Time of Your Life||Joseph T. (who observes people)|
|1949||White Heat||Arthur 'Cody' Jarrett|
|1950||The West Point Story||Elwin 'Bix' Bixby|
|Kiss Tomorrow Goodbye||Ralph Cotter|
|Come Fill the Cup||Lew Marsh|
|1952||What Price Glory?||Capt. Flagg|
|1953||A Lion Is in the Streets||Hank Martin|
|1955||Mister Roberts||Capt. Morgan|
|The Seven Little Foys||George M. Cohan|
|Love Me or Leave Me||Martin Snyder||Nominated - Academy Award for Best Actor|
|Run for Cover||Matt Dow|
|1956||These Wilder Years||Steve Bradford|
|Tribute to a Bad Man||Jeremy Rodock|
|1957||Short-Cut to Hell||Himself||in pre-credits sequence, also director|
|Man of a Thousand Faces||Lon Chaney|
|1959||Shake Hands with the Devil||Sean Lenihan|
|Never Steal Anything Small||Jake MacIllaney|
|1960||The Gallant Hours||Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr.||also producer|
|1961||One, Two, Three||C.R. MacNamara|
|1981||Ragtime||Commissioner Rhinelander Waldo|