Warwick

Warwick

[wawr-ik, wor- or, for 4, wawr-wik, wor-]
Warwick, Guy de Beauchamp, earl of, d. 1315, English nobleman. He was active in Edward I's campaigns in Scotland. A leading opponent of Piers Gaveston, he became (1310) one of the lords ordainers and procured Gaveston's banishment. He was largely responsible for Gaveston's death in 1312, although he did not participate in the actual execution.
Warwick, John Dudley, earl of: see Northumberland, John Dudley, duke of.
Warwick, Richard de Beauchamp, earl of, 1382-1439, English nobleman; son of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. He fought for Henry IV against Owen Glendower in Wales and the Percys at Shrewsbury (1403). In 1408 he set out for the Holy Land, visiting monarchs and fighting in a tournament en route; he made a similarly active return trip through Russia, Poland, and Germany. After his return (1410), Beauchamp performed several royal missions, including that as chief English lay envoy to the Council of Constance (1414). He fought with notable success in Henry V's French campaigns and on Henry's death (1422) became a member of the council for the infant Henry VI. He served as tutor to the young king from 1428 to 1437, when he was appointed lieutenant of France and Normandy. Richard de Beauchamp was a man of piety and courtesy and was famed throughout Europe as a chivalrous knight. His daughter Anne married and brought the earldom to Richard Neville, earl of Warwick.
Warwick, Richard Neville, earl of, 1428-71, English nobleman, called the Kingmaker. Through his grandfather, Ralph Neville, 1st earl of Westmorland, he had connections with the house of Lancaster; he was also the nephew of Cecily Neville, wife of Richard, duke of York. Through his wife, Anne de Beauchamp, he inherited the earldom of Warwick and the vast Beauchamp estates. Thus by virtue of his family and lands, Warwick was the most powerful noble in England and the principal baronial figure in the Wars of the Roses (see Roses, Wars of the).

Yorkist Leader

With his father, the earl of Salisbury, Warwick supported Richard of York in his bid for the protectorship of Henry VI (1454) and took up arms when York lost his office. Warwick was largely responsible for the Yorkist victory at the first battle of St. Albans (1455) and was appointed to the strategic post of governor of Calais. In 1459 when fighting broke out again, York, Salisbury, and Warwick were forced to flee the country, but in 1460 they returned and captured the king at the battle of Northampton. The queen, Margaret of Anjou, raised an army in the north, defeated and killed York and Salisbury at Wakefield (1460), and defeated Warwick and recaptured Henry at the second battle of St. Albans (1461). But York's son, Edward, won the battle of Mortimer's Cross (1461), entered London, and was proclaimed king as Edward IV.

Rising against Edward IV

Henry and Margaret were decisively defeated at Towton (1461), and Edward was crowned. Warwick was now the most powerful man in England, and the Nevilles received extensive royal favors; but Edward resented the earl's domination. In the midst of negotiations by Warwick to marry Edward to Bona of Savoy, the sister-in-law of Louis XI of France, the king announced (1464) that he had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville. Edward now favored a Burgundian alliance against France, the Woodvilles received favor, and Warwick was gradually pushed into the background.

He formed an alliance with the king's brother George, duke of Clarence, to whom he married his daughter, against Edward's orders. Together they rose against Edward in 1469, defeated the king's forces, and placed Edward in captivity. By the end of the year, however, Edward had regained control, and in 1470, after another abortive rising, Warwick and Clarence fled to France. There Louis XI persuaded them to make up their differences with Margaret of Anjou, and in Sept., 1470, Warwick invaded England as a Lancastrian, defeated Edward (who fled abroad), and restored Henry VI. Within six months Edward secured Burgundian aid, landed in England, and was joined by Clarence. Edward and Warwick met in battle at Barnet; the earl was defeated and was slain in flight.

Although an able diplomat and a man of great energy, Warwick owed much of his greatness to his birth and marriage. By the marriage of his daughter to Clarence and the marriage after his death of another daughter to the duke of Gloucester, later Richard III, all of Warwick's property went to the royal house.

Bibliography

See P. M. Kendall, Warwick the Kingmaker (1957, repr. 1987).

Warwick, Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of, d. 1401, English nobleman, of an ancient and powerful family. He was one of the governors of the young Richard II. After Richard assumed power, Warwick joined the barons who opposed the acts of Richard's favorite courtiers and was one of the lords appellant (1388) who accused them of treason and curbed Richard's power. When Richard resumed control (1389), Warwick retired to his estates until his sudden arrest on a fabricated charge of treason in 1397. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London (in the Beauchamp Tower, named for him) and then banished to the Isle of Man until the accession of Henry IV, when he was restored to his estates.
Warwick, town (1991 pop. 21,701) and district, county seat of Warwickshire, central England, on the Avon River. The town has some commerce and manufacturing. Warwick is best known for Warwick Castle, located on the site of a fortress built by Æthelflæd, the daughter of King Alfred, in 915. The castle was begun in the 14th cent. and was converted into a mansion in the 17th cent. St. Mary's Church there dates partly from the 12th cent.; partially burned in 1694, it was redesigned by William Wilson, a pupil of Christopher Wren. The Beauchamp Chapel (1443-64) is noteworthy. In the church are a Norman crypt and monuments to Richard de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, to his countess, and to Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. Within the district, Royal Leamington Spa is a popular health resort.
Warwick, city (1990 pop. 85,427), Kent co., central R.I., at the head of Narragansett Bay; settled by Samuel Gortone 1642, inc. as a city 1931. Its long important textile industry, now closed, dated from 1794. Current manufactures include machinery, metals, pipes and tubing, and silverware. The town includes the villages of Apponaug, on Greenwich Bay; Hillsgrove, site of the state airport; Warwick; and several former resort areas. Warwick village was nearly destroyed (1676) in King Philip's War. Gaspee Point, S of Pawtuxet, was the scene of the burning of the British revenue cutter Gaspee in 1772; annual "Gaspee Days" commemorate the event. Warwick has a very large music arena and an amusement park. Nathanael Greene was born in the city.
orig. Richard Neville

(born Nov. 22, 1428—died April 14, 1471, Barnet, Hertfordshire, Eng.) English nobleman influential in the Wars of the Roses. Son of the earl of Salisbury, he became through marriage (1449) the earl of Warwick and acquired vast estates. With his father, he helped the Yorkists win the Battle of St. Albans (1455). Appointed captain of Calais, in 1460 he crossed to England to defeat and capture Henry VI at Northampton. In 1461 he was routed by the Lancastrians, but he recovered to march on London with York's son Edward, soon crowned Edward IV. Warwick was the virtual ruler during Edward's early reign (1461–64), but tensions between the two mounted, and in 1469 Warwick engineered a revolt in northern England that forced Edward to flee to Flanders in 1470. Warwick joined the Lancastrians and restored Henry VI to the throne, earning his later nickname “the Kingmaker.” He was killed by Edward's forces at the Battle of Barnet.

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Town and district (pop., 2001: 125,962), administrative and historic county of Warwickshire, central England. Known for its historic castle, it grew up at a crossing place on the River Avon and was fortified circa 915. By 1086 it was a royal borough, and William I ordered the castle to be enlarged. The present-day castle dates mainly from the 14th and 15th centuries. With its virtually intact structure and its fine collections of paintings and armour, the castle has become a major tourist attraction. The town, which grew around the castle, is a market centre and has light industry.

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orig. Richard Neville

(born Nov. 22, 1428—died April 14, 1471, Barnet, Hertfordshire, Eng.) English nobleman influential in the Wars of the Roses. Son of the earl of Salisbury, he became through marriage (1449) the earl of Warwick and acquired vast estates. With his father, he helped the Yorkists win the Battle of St. Albans (1455). Appointed captain of Calais, in 1460 he crossed to England to defeat and capture Henry VI at Northampton. In 1461 he was routed by the Lancastrians, but he recovered to march on London with York's son Edward, soon crowned Edward IV. Warwick was the virtual ruler during Edward's early reign (1461–64), but tensions between the two mounted, and in 1469 Warwick engineered a revolt in northern England that forced Edward to flee to Flanders in 1470. Warwick joined the Lancastrians and restored Henry VI to the throne, earning his later nickname “the Kingmaker.” He was killed by Edward's forces at the Battle of Barnet.

Learn more about Warwick, Earl of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Warwick is a city in Worth County, Georgia, United States. The population was 430 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Albany, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Warwick is located at (31.830351, -83.920705).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.1 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 430 people, 160 households, and 123 families residing in the city. The population density was 531.9 people per square mile (205.0/km²). There were 181 housing units at an average density of 223.9/sq mi (86.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 37.67% White, 61.16% African American, 0.47% Asian, 0.47% from other races, and 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.47% of the population.

There were 160 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.1% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.14.

In the city the population was spread out with 30.9% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 20.2% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 84.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,208, and the median income for a family was $37,778. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $14,125 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,766. About 18.5% of families and 27.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.5% of those under age 18 and 25.0% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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