Ward

Ward

[wawrd]
Ward, Artemas, 1727-1800, American general in the American Revolution, b. Shrewsbury, Mass. He was active in colonial politics and served in the French and Indian War. As head of the Massachusetts troops during the revolution, he was chief commander at the siege of Boston (1775) until the arrival of George Washington. After the withdrawal of the main army to New York he was commander at Boston until Mar., 1777. Later he served in the Continental Congress (1780-81) and the U.S. Congress (1791-95).

See biography by C. Martyn (1921, repr. 1970).

Ward, Artemus, pseud. of Charles Farrar Browne, 1834-67, American humorist, b. Waterford, Maine. As a reporter on the Cleveland Plain Dealer, he began in 1858 a series of "Artemus Ward's Letters" that made him famous on both sides of the Atlantic. The letters were supposedly written by a carnival manager who commented on current events in a New England dialect that was augmented by bad grammar and misspelled words. In 1859, Browne joined the staff of the New York humorous weekly Vanity Fair and later turned successfully to lecturing.

See his Selected Works (ed. by A. J. Nock, 1924); biography by J. C. Austin (1964).

Ward, Barbara Mary, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth, 1914-81, British writer. Educated at the Sorbonne and at Oxford, she joined the staff of the Economist in 1939 and became foreign editor in 1940. From 1946 to 1950 she served as a governor of the British Broadcasting Corp. From 1968 to 1973 she was Schweitzer professor of international economic development at Columbia Univ. Among her several popular and penetrating works on international relations are The West at Bay (1948), Policy for the West (1951), The Interplay of East and West (1957; new ed. with new epilogue, 1962), The Rich Nations and the Poor Nations (1962), and Nationalism and Ideology (1966); she edited, with others, The Widening Gap (1971). Ward stressed the need for unity and farsighted ideals in the West and for understanding and liberal economic and political policies toward developing nations. She was created a life peer in 1976.
Ward, Bernard Nicholas: see Ward, William George.
Ward, Edgar Melville: see Ward, John Quincy Adams.
Ward, Frederick Townsend, 1831-62, American adventurer, b. Salem, Mass. A soldier of fortune, he served with William Walker in Nicaragua and with the French forces in the Crimean War. Ward arrived in Shanghai in 1859, when the Taiping Rebellion was at its height. Hired by the Chinese authorities to help quell it, he raised troops, cleared the Shanghai area of rebels, and won many successes near Shanghai and Ningpo. Killed in an attack, he was buried in a tomb at Sungkiang, which had been his headquarters. His armed force became the nucleus of the victorious army of Charles George Gordon (Chinese Gordon).
Ward, Mrs. Humphry, 1851-1920, English novelist, whose maiden name was Mary Augusta Arnold; granddaughter of Thomas Arnold. She was born in Tasmania but was brought to England and grew up in Oxford; there, in 1872, she married Thomas Humphry Ward, an editor of the Oxford Spectator. Her first publications were translations of Spanish literature and a children's book, Millie and Olly (1881). Robert Elsmere (1888), a story defending an ethical rather than mystical interpretation of the Bible, made her reputation. Her novels dramatized her view concerning the social application of religious belief and included Fenwick's Career (1906) and The Case of Richard Meynell (1911). Mrs. Ward was also a dedicated social worker; her achievements include the founding of the Invalid Children's School in 1891.

See her autobiography, A Writer's Recollections (1918); biographies by her daughter, J. P. Trevelyan (1923), and E. H. Jones (1973).

Ward, John Quincy Adams, 1830-1910, American sculptor, b. Urbana, Ohio. He was trained under H. K. Brown, whom he assisted in the execution of the equestrian statue of George Washington in New York City. His Indian Hunter (1864) was the first of many works for Central Park, New York City. His later commissions were for portrait statues and monuments. These include the equestrian statue of General Thomas, the Garfield monument, and General Sherman, Washington, D.C.; Lafayette, Burlington, Vt.; George Washington, in front of the Subtreasury, and Horace Greeley, New York. In 1903, with the collaboration of P. W. Bartlett, he made the pediment sculptures for the New York Stock Exchange. His work is marked by liveliness and strength. He was a founder and president of the National Sculpture Society (1893-1904) and president of the National Academy of Design (1874). His brother Edgar Melville Ward, 1839-1915, was a genre painter; his Coppersmith is housed in the Metropolitan Museum.

See A. Adams, John Quincy Adams Ward (1912).

Ward, Lester Frank, 1841-1913, American sociologist and paleontologist, b. Joliet, Ill. Largely self-educated, he eventually took degrees in medicine and law. He worked as a government geologist and paleontologist from 1881 to 1906, when he became professor of sociology at Brown. One of the first and most important of American sociologists, Ward developed a theory of planned progress called telesis, whereby man, through education and development of intellect, could direct social evolution. His theories and those of his contemporary, William Graham Sumner, represent two main trends in 19th-century American sociology. Among his important works are Dynamic Sociology (1883), Psychic Factors of Civilization (1893), Pure Sociology (1903), and Glimpses of the Cosmos (6 vol., 1913-18).

See S. Chugerman, Lester F. Ward, the American Aristotle (1939, repr. 1965).

Ward, William George, 1812-82, English Roman Catholic apologist, educated at Oxford. He became (1834) a fellow at Balliol College, Oxford, and was ordained in the Church of England. At first a Broad Churchman, he joined the Oxford movement in 1838. Thereafter he became the most extreme of his group, and as a result of his vigorous support of Tract 90 he lost his teaching positions in the university. His long work, The Ideal of a Christian Church (1844), which compared all churches in England unfavorably with the Roman Catholic Church, brought his official degradation from his university degrees (1854); he was soon afterward received into the Roman Catholic Church, where he remained a layman. Ward was lecturer in moral theology in St. Edmund's College, Ware, from 1851 to 1858. From 1863 to 1878 he edited the Dublin Review. He was uncompromising in his religious views, especially with respect to Ultramontanism. He was an eager and hasty controversialist, and his metaphysical subtlety made him a formidable opponent. Ward's friends included men of very divergent opinions.

His son Wilfrid Philip Ward, 1856-1916, was his father's biographer (1893). He also wrote a biography of Cardinal Newman and accounts of Cardinal Wiseman and Aubrey de Vere. Wilfrid Philip Ward, like his father, opposed liberalism in the church but, unlike him, took a more conciliatory position, notably in the modernist controversy. He edited the Dublin Review from 1906. William George Ward's third son, Bernard Nicholas Ward, 1857-1920, was a distinguished churchman; he was president of St. Edmund's College, Ware, and first bishop of Brentwood. He wrote on the history of the Roman Catholic Church in England.

See M. Ward, The Wilfrid Wards and the Transition (2 vol., 1934-37).

ward. 1 In English history, see hundred. 2 In law, see guardian and ward. 3 In local government, see city government.
McAllister, Ward (Samuel Ward McAllister), 1827-95, American society leader, b. Savannah, Ga. He was a wealthy San Francisco lawyer, who moved (1852) to New York City and married (1853) a millionaire's daughter. He established a second residence at Newport, R.I., and soon became the arbiter of the New York and Newport social set. McAllister chose (1872) the "patriarchs," a group of leaders from prominent New York families, and sifted out (1892) the Four Hundred—people whom he deemed members of "true" New York society. It was McAllister who groomed the famous Mrs. William Astor for her role as queen of New York society. He wrote Society as I Have Found It (1890).
orig. Julia Ward

Julia Ward Howe, 1902.

(born May 27, 1819, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 17, 1910, Newport, R.I.) U.S. abolitionist and social reformer. Born to a well-to-do family, she was educated privately. In 1843 she married educator Samuel Gridley Howe and took up residence in Boston. For a while she and her husband published the Commonwealth, an abolitionist newspaper. During a visit to an army camp near Washington, D.C., in 1861, she wrote a poem, “Battle Hymn of the Republic,” to be set to an old folk tune also used for “John Brown's Body.” Published in February 1862 in The Atlantic Monthly, it became the semiofficial Civil War song of the Union Army, and Howe became famous. After the war she involved herself in the woman suffrage movement, helping to found and serving as president of the New England Woman Suffrage Association (1868–77, 1893–1910). She also wrote travel books, biography, drama, verse, and children's songs and edited Woman's Journal (1870–90). In 1908 she became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

Learn more about Howe, Julia Ward with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Julia Ward

Julia Ward Howe, 1902.

(born May 27, 1819, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 17, 1910, Newport, R.I.) U.S. abolitionist and social reformer. Born to a well-to-do family, she was educated privately. In 1843 she married educator Samuel Gridley Howe and took up residence in Boston. For a while she and her husband published the Commonwealth, an abolitionist newspaper. During a visit to an army camp near Washington, D.C., in 1861, she wrote a poem, “Battle Hymn of the Republic,” to be set to an old folk tune also used for “John Brown's Body.” Published in February 1862 in The Atlantic Monthly, it became the semiofficial Civil War song of the Union Army, and Howe became famous. After the war she involved herself in the woman suffrage movement, helping to found and serving as president of the New England Woman Suffrage Association (1868–77, 1893–1910). She also wrote travel books, biography, drama, verse, and children's songs and edited Woman's Journal (1870–90). In 1908 she became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

Learn more about Howe, Julia Ward with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Henry Beecher, photographed by Napoleon Sarony

(born June 24, 1813, Litchfield, Conn., U.S.—died March 8, 1887, Brooklyn, N.Y.) U.S. Congregational clergyman. The son of a minister, he was the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Catharine Esther Beecher. After graduating from Amherst College and later studying at Lane Theological Seminary, he served as pastor to congregations in Indiana. In 1847 he was called to Plymouth Church in Brooklyn. A famous orator and one of the most influential preachers of his time, he opposed slavery and supported women's suffrage, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, and scientific biblical criticism. He gained unfavourable publicity in 1874 when he was put on trial for adultery, but he was acquitted and returned to his church.

Learn more about Beecher, Henry Ward with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Henry Beecher, photographed by Napoleon Sarony

(born June 24, 1813, Litchfield, Conn., U.S.—died March 8, 1887, Brooklyn, N.Y.) U.S. Congregational clergyman. The son of a minister, he was the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Catharine Esther Beecher. After graduating from Amherst College and later studying at Lane Theological Seminary, he served as pastor to congregations in Indiana. In 1847 he was called to Plymouth Church in Brooklyn. A famous orator and one of the most influential preachers of his time, he opposed slavery and supported women's suffrage, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, and scientific biblical criticism. He gained unfavourable publicity in 1874 when he was put on trial for adultery, but he was acquitted and returned to his church.

Learn more about Beecher, Henry Ward with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Ward is the fourth most populous city in Lonoke County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 2,580 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Little RockNorth Little RockConway Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Ward is located at (35.019996, -91.954987).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.9 square miles (10.1 km²), all of it land.

The city is divided into three wards, progressing from the northeast to the southwest. In the city's first ward is its downtown, which is situated diagonally along a railroad line running parallel to Arkansas Highway 367 (the former path of U.S. Highway 67). The second ward contains the central portion of the city, its industrial area, and its access to the current U.S. Highway 67/167. Arkansas Highway 319 (Peyton Street within the city south of Highway 367) is a primary thoroughfare in central Ward toward the southwestern section of the city. Some of the most recent development is in the city's third ward, situated mostly along Peyton Street, south of Wilson Street into the Old Austin community and Arkansas Highway 38; a small detached portion of the ward is located to the northwest along the railroad line and Arkansas Highway 367. Ward Central Elementary, the city's campus of the Cabot School District, is located in the larger portion of the third ward.

Government

Ward is governed by a mayor-council form of municipal government, with a mayor, city clerk, and six-member city council, as well as four city departments — fire, police, street maintenance, and utilities (water and sanitation). City administration is housed in the former Ward Elementary School; the campus is also the site of the city's library, a branch of the Lonoke-Prairie Regional Library System.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,580 people, 938 households, and 726 families residing in the city. The population density was 662.4 people per square mile (256.1/km²). There were 1,075 housing units at an average density of 276.0/sq mi (106.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.33% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.16% from other races, and 1.16% from two or more races. 1.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 938 households out of which 46.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.3% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.6% were non-families. 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the city the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 16.9% from 45 to 64, and 7.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,924, and the median income for a family was $34,702. Males had a median income of $30,275 versus $21,151 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,581. About 13.6% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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